The binding between proteins and ligands plays a crucial role in the realm of drug discovery. Previous deep learning approaches have shown promising results over traditional computationally intensive methods, but resulting in poor generalization due to limited supervised data. In this paper, we propose to learn protein-ligand binding representation in a self-supervised learning manner. Different from existing pre-training approaches which treat proteins and ligands individually, we emphasize to discern the intricate binding patterns from fine-grained interactions. Specifically, this self-supervised learning problem is formulated as a prediction of the conclusive binding complex structure given a pocket and ligand with a Transformer based interaction module, which naturally emulates the binding process. To ensure the representation of rich binding information, we introduce two pre-training tasks, i.e.~atomic pairwise distance map prediction and mask ligand reconstruction, which comprehensively model the fine-grained interactions from both structure and feature space. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the superiority of our method across various binding tasks, including protein-ligand affinity prediction, virtual screening and protein-ligand docking.
While molecular pre-training has shown great potential in enhancing drug discovery, the lack of a solid physical interpretation in current methods raises concerns about whether the learned representation truly captures the underlying explanatory factors in observed data, ultimately resulting in limited generalization and robustness. Although denoising methods offer a physical interpretation, their accuracy is often compromised by ad-hoc noise design, leading to inaccurate learned force fields. To address this limitation, this paper proposes a new method for molecular pre-training, called sliced denoising (SliDe), which is based on the classical mechanical intramolecular potential theory. SliDe utilizes a novel noise strategy that perturbs bond lengths, angles, and torsion angles to achieve better sampling over conformations. Additionally, it introduces a random slicing approach that circumvents the computationally expensive calculation of the Jacobian matrix, which is otherwise essential for estimating the force field. By aligning with physical principles, SliDe shows a 42\% improvement in the accuracy of estimated force fields compared to current state-of-the-art denoising methods, and thus outperforms traditional baselines on various molecular property prediction tasks.
Molecular representation learning is fundamental for many drug related applications. Most existing molecular pre-training models are limited in using single molecular modality, either SMILES or graph representation. To effectively leverage both modalities, we argue that it is critical to capture the fine-grained 'semantics' between SMILES and graph, because subtle sequence/graph differences may lead to contrary molecular properties. In this paper, we propose a universal SMILE-graph representation learning model, namely UniMAP. Firstly, an embedding layer is employed to obtain the token and node/edge representation in SMILES and graph, respectively. A multi-layer Transformer is then utilized to conduct deep cross-modality fusion. Specially, four kinds of pre-training tasks are designed for UniMAP, including Multi-Level Cross-Modality Masking (CMM), SMILES-Graph Matching (SGM), Fragment-Level Alignment (FLA), and Domain Knowledge Learning (DKL). In this way, both global (i.e. SGM and DKL) and local (i.e. CMM and FLA) alignments are integrated to achieve comprehensive cross-modality fusion. We evaluate UniMAP on various downstream tasks, i.e. molecular property prediction, drug-target affinity prediction and drug-drug interaction. Experimental results show that UniMAP outperforms current state-of-the-art pre-training methods.We also visualize the learned representations to demonstrate the effect of multi-modality integration.
In this paper, we propose Docprompt for document question answering tasks with powerful zero-shot and few-shot performance. We proposed a novel weakly supervised data generation method, a novel multl-stage training method and a novel understanding model \& generation model ensemble method. We achieved state-of-the-art performance on 4 document question answering tasks. This method greatly improves the delivery efficiency and model performance of document question answering customer projects, reducing annotation costs and labor costs. Our demo can be found at https://huggingface.co/spaces/PaddlePaddle/ERNIE-Layout.
Coordinate denoising is a promising 3D molecular pre-training method, which has achieved remarkable performance in various downstream drug discovery tasks. Theoretically, the objective is equivalent to learning the force field, which is revealed helpful for downstream tasks. Nevertheless, there are two challenges for coordinate denoising to learn an effective force field, i.e. low coverage samples and isotropic force field. The underlying reason is that molecular distributions assumed by existing denoising methods fail to capture the anisotropic characteristic of molecules. To tackle these challenges, we propose a novel hybrid noise strategy, including noises on both dihedral angel and coordinate. However, denoising such hybrid noise in a traditional way is no more equivalent to learning the force field. Through theoretical deductions, we find that the problem is caused by the dependency of the input conformation for covariance. To this end, we propose to decouple the two types of noise and design a novel fractional denoising method (Frad), which only denoises the latter coordinate part. In this way, Frad enjoys both the merits of sampling more low-energy structures and the force field equivalence. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of Frad in molecular representation, with a new state-of-the-art on 9 out of 12 tasks of QM9 and on 7 out of 8 targets of MD17.
Self-supervised molecular representation learning is critical for molecule-based tasks such as AI-assisted drug discovery. Recent studies consider leveraging both 2D and 3D information for representation learning, with straightforward alignment strategies that treat each modality separately. In this work, we introduce a novel "blend-then-predict" self-supervised learning method (MoleBLEND), which blends atom relations from different modalities into one unified relation matrix for encoding, then recovers modality-specific information for both 2D and 3D structures. By treating atom relationships as anchors, seemingly dissimilar 2D and 3D manifolds are aligned and integrated at fine-grained relation-level organically. Extensive experiments show that MoleBLEND achieves state-of-the-art performance across major 2D/3D benchmarks. We further provide theoretical insights from the perspective of mutual-information maximization, demonstrating that our method unifies contrastive, generative (inter-modal prediction) and mask-then-predict (intra-modal prediction) objectives into a single cohesive blend-then-predict framework.
Structured text extraction is one of the most valuable and challenging application directions in the field of Document AI. However, the scenarios of past benchmarks are limited, and the corresponding evaluation protocols usually focus on the submodules of the structured text extraction scheme. In order to eliminate these problems, we organized the ICDAR 2023 competition on Structured text extraction from Visually-Rich Document images (SVRD). We set up two tracks for SVRD including Track 1: HUST-CELL and Track 2: Baidu-FEST, where HUST-CELL aims to evaluate the end-to-end performance of Complex Entity Linking and Labeling, and Baidu-FEST focuses on evaluating the performance and generalization of Zero-shot / Few-shot Structured Text extraction from an end-to-end perspective. Compared to the current document benchmarks, our two tracks of competition benchmark enriches the scenarios greatly and contains more than 50 types of visually-rich document images (mainly from the actual enterprise applications). The competition opened on 30th December, 2022 and closed on 24th March, 2023. There are 35 participants and 91 valid submissions received for Track 1, and 15 participants and 26 valid submissions received for Track 2. In this report we will presents the motivation, competition datasets, task definition, evaluation protocol, and submission summaries. According to the performance of the submissions, we believe there is still a large gap on the expected information extraction performance for complex and zero-shot scenarios. It is hoped that this competition will attract many researchers in the field of CV and NLP, and bring some new thoughts to the field of Document AI.
* ICDAR 2023 Competition on SVRD report (To be appear in ICDAR 2023)
Text-to-3D is an emerging task that allows users to create 3D content with infinite possibilities. Existing works tackle the problem by optimizing a 3D representation with guidance from pre-trained diffusion models. An apparent drawback is that they need to optimize from scratch for each prompt, which is computationally expensive and often yields poor visual fidelity. In this paper, we propose DreamPortrait, which aims to generate text-guided 3D-aware portraits in a single-forward pass for efficiency. To achieve this, we extend Score Distillation Sampling from datapoint to distribution formulation, which injects semantic prior into a 3D distribution. However, the direct extension will lead to the mode collapse problem since the objective only pursues semantic alignment. Hence, we propose to optimize a distribution with hierarchical condition adapters and GAN loss regularization. For better 3D modeling, we further design a 3D-aware gated cross-attention mechanism to explicitly let the model perceive the correspondence between the text and the 3D-aware space. These elaborated designs enable our model to generate portraits with robust multi-view semantic consistency, eliminating the need for optimization-based methods. Extensive experiments demonstrate our model's highly competitive performance and significant speed boost against existing methods.
Heterogeneous Graph Neural Networks (HGNNs) have gained significant popularity in various heterogeneous graph learning tasks. However, most HGNNs rely on spatial domain-based message passing and attention modules for information propagation and aggregation. These spatial-based HGNNs neglect the utilization of spectral graph convolutions, which are the foundation of Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN) on homogeneous graphs. Inspired by the effectiveness and scalability of spectral-based GNNs on homogeneous graphs, this paper explores the extension of spectral-based GNNs to heterogeneous graphs. We propose PSHGCN, a novel heterogeneous convolutional network based on positive noncommutative polynomials. PSHGCN provides a simple yet effective approach for learning spectral graph convolutions on heterogeneous graphs. Moreover, we demonstrate the rationale of PSHGCN in graph optimization. We conducted an extensive experimental study to show that PSHGCN can learn diverse spectral heterogeneous graph convolutions and achieve superior performance in node classification tasks. Our code is available at https://github.com/ivam-he/PSHGCN.