Large Language Model (LLM) agents significantly extend the capabilities of standalone LLMs, empowering them to interact with external tools (e.g., APIs, functions) and complete complex tasks in a self-directed fashion. The challenge of tool use demands that LLMs not only understand user queries and generate answers but also excel in task planning, memory management, tool invocation, and result summarization. While traditional approaches focus on training a single LLM with all these capabilities, performance limitations become apparent, particularly with smaller models. Moreover, the entire LLM may require retraining when tools are updated. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel strategy that decomposes the aforementioned capabilities into a planner, caller, and summarizer. Each component is implemented by a single LLM that focuses on a specific capability and collaborates with other components to accomplish the task. This modular framework facilitates individual updates and the potential use of smaller LLMs for building each capability. To effectively train this framework, we introduce a two-stage training paradigm. First, we fine-tune a backbone LLM on the entire dataset without discriminating sub-tasks, providing the model with a comprehensive understanding of the task. Second, the fine-tuned LLM is used to instantiate the planner, caller, and summarizer respectively, which are continually fine-tuned on respective sub-tasks. Evaluation across various tool-use benchmarks illustrates that our proposed multi-LLM framework surpasses the traditional single-LLM approach, highlighting its efficacy and advantages in tool learning.
Mobile device agent based on Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLM) is becoming a popular application. In this paper, we introduce Mobile-Agent, an autonomous multi-modal mobile device agent. Mobile-Agent first leverages visual perception tools to accurately identify and locate both the visual and textual elements within the app's front-end interface. Based on the perceived vision context, it then autonomously plans and decomposes the complex operation task, and navigates the mobile Apps through operations step by step. Different from previous solutions that rely on XML files of Apps or mobile system metadata, Mobile-Agent allows for greater adaptability across diverse mobile operating environments in a vision-centric way, thereby eliminating the necessity for system-specific customizations. To assess the performance of Mobile-Agent, we introduced Mobile-Eval, a benchmark for evaluating mobile device operations. Based on Mobile-Eval, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of Mobile-Agent. The experimental results indicate that Mobile-Agent achieved remarkable accuracy and completion rates. Even with challenging instructions, such as multi-app operations, Mobile-Agent can still complete the requirements. Code and model will be open-sourced at https://github.com/X-PLUG/MobileAgent.
Closed-source language models such as GPT-4 have achieved remarkable performance. Many recent studies focus on enhancing the capabilities of smaller models through knowledge distillation from closed-source language models. However, due to the incapability to directly access the weights, hidden states, and output distributions of these closed-source models, the distillation can only be performed by fine-tuning smaller models with data samples generated by closed-source language models, which constrains the effectiveness of knowledge distillation. In this paper, we propose to estimate the output distributions of closed-source language models within a Bayesian estimation framework, involving both prior and posterior estimation. The prior estimation aims to derive a prior distribution by utilizing the corpus generated by closed-source language models, while the posterior estimation employs a proxy model to update the prior distribution and derive a posterior distribution. By leveraging the estimated output distribution of closed-source language models, traditional knowledge distillation can be executed. Experimental results demonstrate that our method surpasses the performance of current models directly fine-tuned on data generated by closed-source language models.
Language agents have shown impressive problem-solving skills within defined settings and brief timelines. Yet, with the ever-evolving complexities of open-world simulations, there's a pressing need for agents that can flexibly adapt to complex environments and consistently maintain a long-term memory to ensure coherent actions. To bridge the gap between language agents and open-world games, we introduce Language Agent for Role-Playing (LARP), which includes a cognitive architecture that encompasses memory processing and a decision-making assistant, an environment interaction module with a feedback-driven learnable action space, and a postprocessing method that promotes the alignment of various personalities. The LARP framework refines interactions between users and agents, predefined with unique backgrounds and personalities, ultimately enhancing the gaming experience in open-world contexts. Furthermore, it highlights the diverse uses of language models in a range of areas such as entertainment, education, and various simulation scenarios. The project page is released at https://miao-ai-lab.github.io/LARP/.
Self-supervised Multi-modal Contrastive Learning (SMCL) remarkably advances modern Vision-Language Pre-training (VLP) models by aligning visual and linguistic modalities. Due to noises in web-harvested text-image pairs, however, scaling up training data volume in SMCL presents considerable obstacles in terms of computational cost and data inefficiency. To improve data efficiency in VLP, we propose Text-aware Image Mixing (TiMix), which integrates mix-based data augmentation techniques into SMCL, yielding significant performance improvements without significantly increasing computational overhead. We provide a theoretical analysis of TiMixfrom a mutual information (MI) perspective, showing that mixed data samples for cross-modal contrastive learning implicitly serve as a regularizer for the contrastive loss. The experimental results demonstrate that TiMix exhibits a comparable performance on downstream tasks, even with a reduced amount of training data and shorter training time, when benchmarked against existing methods. This work empirically and theoretically demonstrates the potential of data mixing for data-efficient and computationally viable VLP, benefiting broader VLP model adoption in practical scenarios.
Multi-modal large language models (MLLMs) have been shown to efficiently integrate natural language with visual information to handle multi-modal tasks. However, MLLMs still face a fundamental limitation of hallucinations, where they tend to generate erroneous or fabricated information. In this paper, we address hallucinations in MLLMs from a novel perspective of representation learning. We first analyzed the representation distribution of textual and visual tokens in MLLM, revealing two important findings: 1) there is a significant gap between textual and visual representations, indicating unsatisfactory cross-modal representation alignment; 2) representations of texts that contain and do not contain hallucinations are entangled, making it challenging to distinguish them. These two observations inspire us with a simple yet effective method to mitigate hallucinations. Specifically, we introduce contrastive learning into MLLMs and use text with hallucination as hard negative examples, naturally bringing representations of non-hallucinative text and visual samples closer while pushing way representations of non-hallucinating and hallucinative text. We evaluate our method quantitatively and qualitatively, showing its effectiveness in reducing hallucination occurrences and improving performance across multiple benchmarks. On the MMhal-Bench benchmark, our method obtains a 34.66% /29.5% improvement over the baseline MiniGPT-4/LLaVA.
Recently, the strong text creation ability of Large Language Models(LLMs) has given rise to many tools for assisting paper reading or even writing. However, the weak diagram analysis abilities of LLMs or Multimodal LLMs greatly limit their application scenarios, especially for scientific academic paper writing. In this work, towards a more versatile copilot for academic paper writing, we mainly focus on strengthening the multi-modal diagram analysis ability of Multimodal LLMs. By parsing Latex source files of high-quality papers, we carefully build a multi-modal diagram understanding dataset M-Paper. By aligning diagrams in the paper with related paragraphs, we construct professional diagram analysis samples for training and evaluation. M-Paper is the first dataset to support joint comprehension of multiple scientific diagrams, including figures and tables in the format of images or Latex codes. Besides, to better align the copilot with the user's intention, we introduce the `outline' as the control signal, which could be directly given by the user or revised based on auto-generated ones. Comprehensive experiments with a state-of-the-art Mumtimodal LLM demonstrate that training on our dataset shows stronger scientific diagram understanding performance, including diagram captioning, diagram analysis, and outline recommendation. The dataset, code, and model are available at https://github.com/X-PLUG/mPLUG-DocOwl/tree/main/PaperOwl.
* 20 pages, 12 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with
arXiv:2305.15225 by other authors
Despite making significant progress in multi-modal tasks, current Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs) encounter the significant challenge of hallucination, which may lead to harmful consequences. Therefore, evaluating MLLMs' hallucinations is becoming increasingly important in model improvement and practical application deployment. Previous works are limited in high evaluation costs (e.g., relying on humans or advanced LLMs) and insufficient evaluation dimensions (e.g., types of hallucination and task). In this paper, we propose an LLM-free multi-dimensional benchmark AMBER, which can be used to evaluate both generative task and discriminative task including object existence, object attribute and object relation hallucination. Based on AMBER, we design a low-cost and efficient evaluation pipeline. Additionally, we conduct a comprehensive evaluation and detailed analysis of mainstream MLLMs including GPT-4V(ision), and also give guideline suggestions for mitigating hallucinations. The data and code of AMBER are available at https://github.com/junyangwang0410/AMBER.
Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have demonstrated impressive instruction abilities across various open-ended tasks. However, previous methods primarily focus on enhancing multi-modal capabilities. In this work, we introduce a versatile multi-modal large language model, mPLUG-Owl2, which effectively leverages modality collaboration to improve performance in both text and multi-modal tasks. mPLUG-Owl2 utilizes a modularized network design, with the language decoder acting as a universal interface for managing different modalities. Specifically, mPLUG-Owl2 incorporates shared functional modules to facilitate modality collaboration and introduces a modality-adaptive module that preserves modality-specific features. Extensive experiments reveal that mPLUG-Owl2 is capable of generalizing both text tasks and multi-modal tasks and achieving state-of-the-art performances with a single generic model. Notably, mPLUG-Owl2 is the first MLLM model that demonstrates the modality collaboration phenomenon in both pure-text and multi-modal scenarios, setting a pioneering path in the development of future multi-modal foundation models.