Recent advances in large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated exceptional performance in various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, their effective application in the medical domain is hampered by a lack of medical domain knowledge. In this study, we present SA-MDKIF, a scalable and adaptable framework that aims to inject medical knowledge into general-purpose LLMs through instruction tuning, thereby enabling adaptability for various downstream tasks. SA-MDKIF consists of two stages: skill training and skill adaptation. In the first stage, we define 12 basic medical skills and use AdaLoRA to train these skills based on uniformly formatted instructional datasets that we have constructed. In the next stage, we train the skill router using task-specific downstream data and use this router to integrate the acquired skills with LLMs during inference. Experimental results on 9 different medical tasks show that SA-MDKIF improves performance by 10-20% compared to the original LLMs. Notably, this improvement is particularly pronounced for unseen medical tasks, showing an improvement of up to 30%.
The remarkable achievements of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly in Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL), have fueled their extensive deployment across multiple sectors, including Software Engineering (SE). However, due to their black-box nature, these promising AI-driven SE models are still far from being deployed in practice. This lack of explainability poses unwanted risks for their applications in critical tasks, such as vulnerability detection, where decision-making transparency is of paramount importance. This paper endeavors to elucidate this interdisciplinary domain by presenting a systematic literature review of approaches that aim to improve the explainability of AI models within the context of SE. The review canvasses work appearing in the most prominent SE & AI conferences and journals, and spans 63 papers across 21 unique SE tasks. Based on three key Research Questions (RQs), we aim to (1) summarize the SE tasks where XAI techniques have shown success to date; (2) classify and analyze different XAI techniques; and (3) investigate existing evaluation approaches. Based on our findings, we identified a set of challenges remaining to be addressed in existing studies, together with a roadmap highlighting potential opportunities we deemed appropriate and important for future work.
* submitted to ACM Computing Surveys. arXiv admin note: text overlap
with arXiv:2202.06840 by other authors
Endowing machines with abstract reasoning ability has been a long-term research topic in artificial intelligence. Raven's Progressive Matrix (RPM) is widely used to probe abstract visual reasoning in machine intelligence, where models need to understand the underlying rules and select the missing bottom-right images out of candidate sets to complete image matrices. The participators can display powerful reasoning ability by inferring the underlying attribute-changing rules and imagining the missing images at arbitrary positions. However, existing solvers can hardly manifest such an ability in realistic RPM problems. In this paper, we propose a conditional generative model to solve answer generation problems through Rule AbstractIon and SElection (RAISE) in the latent space. RAISE encodes image attributes as latent concepts and decomposes underlying rules into atomic rules by means of concepts, which are abstracted as global learnable parameters. When generating the answer, RAISE selects proper atomic rules out of the global knowledge set for each concept and composes them into the integrated rule of an RPM. In most configurations, RAISE outperforms the compared generative solvers in tasks of generating bottom-right and arbitrary-position answers. We test RAISE in the odd-one-out task and two held-out configurations to demonstrate how learning decoupled latent concepts and atomic rules helps find the image breaking the underlying rules and handle RPMs with unseen combinations of rules and attributes.
Learning neural operators for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) has attracted great attention due to its high inference efficiency. However, training such operators requires generating a substantial amount of labeled data, i.e., PDE problems together with their solutions. The data generation process is exceptionally time-consuming, as it involves solving numerous systems of linear equations to obtain numerical solutions to the PDEs. Many existing methods solve these systems independently without considering their inherent similarities, resulting in extremely redundant computations. To tackle this problem, we propose a novel method, namely Sorting Krylov Recycling (SKR), to boost the efficiency of solving these systems, thus significantly accelerating data generation for neural operators training. To the best of our knowledge, SKR is the first attempt to address the time-consuming nature of data generation for learning neural operators. The working horse of SKR is Krylov subspace recycling, a powerful technique for solving a series of interrelated systems by leveraging their inherent similarities. Specifically, SKR employs a sorting algorithm to arrange these systems in a sequence, where adjacent systems exhibit high similarities. Then it equips a solver with Krylov subspace recycling to solve the systems sequentially instead of independently, thus effectively enhancing the solving efficiency. Both theoretical analysis and extensive experiments demonstrate that SKR can significantly accelerate neural operator data generation, achieving a remarkable speedup of up to 13.9 times.
This paper presents an innovative exploration of the application potential of large language models (LLM) in addressing the challenging task of automatically generating behavior trees (BTs) for complex tasks. The conventional manual BT generation method is inefficient and heavily reliant on domain expertise. On the other hand, existing automatic BT generation technologies encounter bottlenecks related to task complexity, model adaptability, and reliability. In order to overcome these challenges, we propose a novel methodology that leverages the robust representation and reasoning abilities of LLMs. The core contribution of this paper lies in the design of a BT generation framework based on LLM, which encompasses the entire process, from data synthesis and model training to application developing and data verification. Synthetic data is introduced to train the BT generation model (BTGen model), enhancing its understanding and adaptability to various complex tasks, thereby significantly improving its overall performance. In order to ensure the effectiveness and executability of the generated BTs, we emphasize the importance of data verification and introduce a multilevel verification strategy. Additionally, we explore a range of agent design and development schemes with LLM as the central element. We hope that the work in this paper may provide a reference for the researchers who are interested in BT generation based on LLMs.
The exponential growth of large language models (LLMs) has opened up numerous possibilities for multimodal AGI systems. However, the progress in vision and vision-language foundation models, which are also critical elements of multi-modal AGI, has not kept pace with LLMs. In this work, we design a large-scale vision-language foundation model (InternVL), which scales up the vision foundation model to 6 billion parameters and progressively aligns it with the LLM, using web-scale image-text data from various sources. This model can be broadly applied to and achieve state-of-the-art performance on 32 generic visual-linguistic benchmarks including visual perception tasks such as image-level or pixel-level recognition, vision-language tasks such as zero-shot image/video classification, zero-shot image/video-text retrieval, and link with LLMs to create multi-modal dialogue systems. It has powerful visual capabilities and can be a good alternative to the ViT-22B. We hope that our research could contribute to the development of multi-modal large models. Code and models are available at https://github.com/OpenGVLab/InternVL.
Visual scenes are extremely diverse, not only because there are infinite possible combinations of objects and backgrounds but also because the observations of the same scene may vary greatly with the change of viewpoints. When observing a multi-object visual scene from multiple viewpoints, humans can perceive the scene compositionally from each viewpoint while achieving the so-called ``object constancy'' across different viewpoints, even though the exact viewpoints are untold. This ability is essential for humans to identify the same object while moving and to learn from vision efficiently. It is intriguing to design models that have a similar ability. In this paper, we consider a novel problem of learning compositional scene representations from multiple unspecified (i.e., unknown and unrelated) viewpoints without using any supervision and propose a deep generative model which separates latent representations into a viewpoint-independent part and a viewpoint-dependent part to solve this problem. During the inference, latent representations are randomly initialized and iteratively updated by integrating the information in different viewpoints with neural networks. Experiments on several specifically designed synthetic datasets have shown that the proposed method can effectively learn from multiple unspecified viewpoints.
* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2112.03568
Pre-training & fine-tuning can enhance the transferring efficiency and performance in visual tasks. Recent delta-tuning methods provide more options for visual classification tasks. Despite their success, existing visual delta-tuning art fails to exceed the upper limit of full fine-tuning on challenging tasks like instance segmentation and semantic segmentation. To find a competitive alternative to full fine-tuning, we propose the Multi-cognitive Visual Adapter (Mona) tuning, a novel adapter-based tuning method. First, we introduce multiple vision-friendly filters into the adapter to enhance its ability to process visual signals, while previous methods mainly rely on language-friendly linear filters. Second, we add the scaled normalization layer in the adapter to regulate the distribution of input features for visual filters. To fully demonstrate the practicality and generality of Mona, we conduct experiments on multiple representative visual tasks, including instance segmentation on COCO, semantic segmentation on ADE20K, object detection on Pascal VOC, and image classification on several common datasets. Exciting results illustrate that Mona surpasses full fine-tuning on all these tasks and is the only delta-tuning method outperforming full fine-tuning on instance segmentation and semantic segmentation tasks. For example, Mona achieves a 1% performance gain on the COCO dataset compared to full fine-tuning. Comprehensive results suggest that Mona-tuning is more suitable for retaining and utilizing the capabilities of pre-trained models than full fine-tuning. The code will be released at https://github.com/Leiyi-Hu/mona.