Label noise is ubiquitous in various machine learning scenarios such as self-labeling with model predictions and erroneous data annotation. Many existing approaches are based on heuristics such as sample losses, which might not be flexible enough to achieve optimal solutions. Meta learning based methods address this issue by learning a data selection function, but can be hard to optimize. In light of these pros and cons, we propose Selection-Enhanced Noisy label Training (SENT) that does not rely on meta learning while having the flexibility of being data-driven. SENT transfers the noise distribution to a clean set and trains a model to distinguish noisy labels from clean ones using model-based features. Empirically, on a wide range of tasks including text classification and speech recognition, SENT improves performance over strong baselines under the settings of self-training and label corruption.
Generative modeling has been the dominant approach for large-scale pretraining and zero-shot generalization. In this work, we challenge this convention by showing that discriminative approaches perform substantially better than generative ones on a large number of NLP tasks. Technically, we train a single discriminator to predict whether a text sample comes from the true data distribution, similar to GANs. Since many NLP tasks can be formulated as selecting from a few options, we use this discriminator to predict the option with the highest probability. This simple formulation achieves state-of-the-art zero-shot results on the T0 benchmark, outperforming T0 by 16.0\%, 7.8\%, and 11.5\% respectively on different scales. In the finetuning setting, our approach also achieves new state-of-the-art results on a wide range of NLP tasks, with only 1/4 parameters of previous methods. Meanwhile, our approach requires minimal prompting efforts, which largely improves robustness and is essential for real-world applications. Furthermore, we also jointly train a generalized UD in combination with generative tasks, which maintains its advantage on discriminative tasks and simultaneously works on generative tasks.
The crime forecasting is an important problem as it greatly contributes to urban safety. Typically, the goal of the problem is to predict different types of crimes for each geographical region (like a neighborhood or censor tract) in the near future. Since nearby regions usually have similar socioeconomic characteristics which indicate similar crime patterns, recent state-of-the-art solutions constructed a distance-based region graph and utilized Graph Neural Network (GNN) techniques for crime forecasting, because the GNN techniques could effectively exploit the latent relationships between neighboring region nodes in the graph. However, this distance-based pre-defined graph cannot fully capture crime correlation between regions that are far from each other but share similar crime patterns. Hence, to make an accurate crime prediction, the main challenge is to learn a better graph that reveals the dependencies between regions in crime occurrences and meanwhile captures the temporal patterns from historical crime records. To address these challenges, we propose an end-to-end graph convolutional recurrent network called HAGEN with several novel designs for crime prediction. Specifically, our framework could jointly capture the crime correlation between regions and the temporal crime dynamics by combining an adaptive region graph learning module with the Diffusion Convolution Gated Recurrent Unit (DCGRU). Based on the homophily assumption of GNN, we propose a homophily-aware constraint to regularize the optimization of the region graph so that neighboring region nodes on the learned graph share similar crime patterns, thus fitting the mechanism of diffusion convolution. It also incorporates crime embedding to model the interdependencies between regions and crime categories. Empirical experiments and comprehensive analysis on two real-world datasets showcase the effectiveness of HAGEN.