Learning complex multi-agent system dynamics from data is crucial across many domains, such as in physical simulations and material modeling. Extended from purely data-driven approaches, existing physics-informed approaches such as Hamiltonian Neural Network strictly follow energy conservation law to introduce inductive bias, making their learning more sample efficiently. However, many real-world systems do not strictly conserve energy, such as spring systems with frictions. Recognizing this, we turn our attention to a broader physical principle: Time-Reversal Symmetry, which depicts that the dynamics of a system shall remain invariant when traversed back over time. It still helps to preserve energies for conservative systems and in the meanwhile, serves as a strong inductive bias for non-conservative, reversible systems. To inject such inductive bias, in this paper, we propose a simple-yet-effective self-supervised regularization term as a soft constraint that aligns the forward and backward trajectories predicted by a continuous graph neural network-based ordinary differential equation (GraphODE). It effectively imposes time-reversal symmetry to enable more accurate model predictions across a wider range of dynamical systems under classical mechanics. In addition, we further provide theoretical analysis to show that our regularization essentially minimizes higher-order Taylor expansion terms during the ODE integration steps, which enables our model to be more noise-tolerant and even applicable to irreversible systems. Experimental results on a variety of physical systems demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. Particularly, it achieves an MSE improvement of 11.5 % on a challenging chaotic triple-pendulum systems.
In this paper, we explore the potential of Large Language Models (LLMs) Agents in playing the strategic social deduction game, Resistance Avalon. Players in Avalon are challenged not only to make informed decisions based on dynamically evolving game phases, but also to engage in discussions where they must deceive, deduce, and negotiate with other players. These characteristics make Avalon a compelling test-bed to study the decision-making and language-processing capabilities of LLM Agents. To facilitate research in this line, we introduce AvalonBench - a comprehensive game environment tailored for evaluating multi-agent LLM Agents. This benchmark incorporates: (1) a game environment for Avalon, (2) rule-based bots as baseline opponents, and (3) ReAct-style LLM agents with tailored prompts for each role. Notably, our evaluations based on AvalonBench highlight a clear capability gap. For instance, models like ChatGPT playing good-role got a win rate of 22.2% against rule-based bots playing evil, while good-role bot achieves 38.2% win rate in the same setting. We envision AvalonBench could be a good test-bed for developing more advanced LLMs (with self-playing) and agent frameworks that can effectively model the layered complexities of such game environments.
Recent advances in large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated notable progress on many mathematical benchmarks. However, most of these benchmarks only feature problems grounded in junior and senior high school subjects, contain only multiple-choice questions, and are confined to a limited scope of elementary arithmetic operations. To address these issues, this paper introduces an expansive benchmark suite SciBench that aims to systematically examine the reasoning capabilities required for complex scientific problem solving. SciBench contains two carefully curated datasets: an open set featuring a range of collegiate-level scientific problems drawn from mathematics, chemistry, and physics textbooks, and a closed set comprising problems from undergraduate-level exams in computer science and mathematics. Based on the two datasets, we conduct an in-depth benchmark study of two representative LLMs with various prompting strategies. The results reveal that current LLMs fall short of delivering satisfactory performance, with an overall score of merely 35.80%. Furthermore, through a detailed user study, we categorize the errors made by LLMs into ten problem-solving abilities. Our analysis indicates that no single prompting strategy significantly outperforms others and some strategies that demonstrate improvements in certain problem-solving skills result in declines in other skills. We envision that SciBench will catalyze further developments in the reasoning abilities of LLMs, thereby ultimately contributing to scientific research and discovery.
The limited availability of annotations in small molecule datasets presents a challenge to machine learning models. To address this, one common strategy is to collaborate with additional auxiliary datasets. However, having more data does not always guarantee improvements. Negative transfer can occur when the knowledge in the target dataset differs or contradicts that of the auxiliary molecule datasets. In light of this, identifying the auxiliary molecule datasets that can benefit the target dataset when jointly trained remains a critical and unresolved problem. Through an empirical analysis, we observe that combining graph structure similarity and task similarity can serve as a more reliable indicator for identifying high-affinity auxiliary datasets. Motivated by this insight, we propose MolGroup, which separates the dataset affinity into task and structure affinity to predict the potential benefits of each auxiliary molecule dataset. MolGroup achieves this by utilizing a routing mechanism optimized through a bi-level optimization framework. Empowered by the meta gradient, the routing mechanism is optimized toward maximizing the target dataset's performance and quantifies the affinity as the gating score. As a result, MolGroup is capable of predicting the optimal combination of auxiliary datasets for each target dataset. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of MolGroup, showing an average improvement of 4.41%/3.47% for GIN/Graphormer trained with the group of molecule datasets selected by MolGroup on 11 target molecule datasets.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) are emerging for machine learning research on graph-structured data. GNNs achieve state-of-the-art performance on many tasks, but they face scalability challenges when it comes to real-world applications that have numerous data and strict latency requirements. Many studies have been conducted on how to accelerate GNNs in an effort to address these challenges. These acceleration techniques touch on various aspects of the GNN pipeline, from smart training and inference algorithms to efficient systems and customized hardware. As the amount of research on GNN acceleration has grown rapidly, there lacks a systematic treatment to provide a unified view and address the complexity of relevant works. In this survey, we provide a taxonomy of GNN acceleration, review the existing approaches, and suggest future research directions. Our taxonomic treatment of GNN acceleration connects the existing works and sets the stage for further development in this area.
In this paper, we propose an autonomous information seeking visual question answering framework, AVIS. Our method leverages a Large Language Model (LLM) to dynamically strategize the utilization of external tools and to investigate their outputs, thereby acquiring the indispensable knowledge needed to provide answers to the posed questions. Responding to visual questions that necessitate external knowledge, such as "What event is commemorated by the building depicted in this image?", is a complex task. This task presents a combinatorial search space that demands a sequence of actions, including invoking APIs, analyzing their responses, and making informed decisions. We conduct a user study to collect a variety of instances of human decision-making when faced with this task. This data is then used to design a system comprised of three components: an LLM-powered planner that dynamically determines which tool to use next, an LLM-powered reasoner that analyzes and extracts key information from the tool outputs, and a working memory component that retains the acquired information throughout the process. The collected user behavior serves as a guide for our system in two key ways. First, we create a transition graph by analyzing the sequence of decisions made by users. This graph delineates distinct states and confines the set of actions available at each state. Second, we use examples of user decision-making to provide our LLM-powered planner and reasoner with relevant contextual instances, enhancing their capacity to make informed decisions. We show that AVIS achieves state-of-the-art results on knowledge-intensive visual question answering benchmarks such as Infoseek and OK-VQA.
Dynamically planning in multi-agent systems has been explored to improve decision-making in various domains. Professional basketball serves as a compelling example of a dynamic spatio-temporal game, encompassing both concealed strategic policies and decision-making. However, processing the diverse on-court signals and navigating the vast space of potential actions and outcomes makes it difficult for existing approaches to swiftly identify optimal strategies in response to evolving circumstances. In this study, we first formulate the sequential decision-making process as a conditional trajectory generation process. We further introduce PLAYBEST (PLAYer BEhavior SynThesis), a method for enhancing player decision-making. We extend the state-of-the-art generative model, diffusion probabilistic model, to learn challenging multi-agent environmental dynamics from historical National Basketball Association (NBA) player motion tracking data. To incorporate data-driven strategies, an auxiliary value function is trained using the play-by-play data with corresponding rewards acting as the plan guidance. To accomplish reward-guided trajectory generation, conditional sampling is introduced to condition the diffusion model on the value function and conduct classifier-guided sampling. We validate the effectiveness of PLAYBEST via comprehensive simulation studies from real-world data, contrasting the generated trajectories and play strategies with those employed by professional basketball teams. Our results reveal that the model excels at generating high-quality basketball trajectories that yield efficient plays, surpassing conventional planning techniques in terms of adaptability, flexibility, and overall performance. Moreover, the synthesized play strategies exhibit a remarkable alignment with professional tactics, highlighting the model's capacity to capture the intricate dynamics of basketball games.
Recent years have witnessed the growing popularity of domain-specific accelerators (DSAs), such as Google's TPUs, for accelerating various applications such as deep learning, search, autonomous driving, etc. To facilitate DSA designs, high-level synthesis (HLS) is used, which allows a developer to compile a high-level description in the form of software code in C and C++ into a design in low-level hardware description languages (such as VHDL or Verilog) and eventually synthesized into a DSA on an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) or FPGA (field-programmable gate arrays). However, existing HLS tools still require microarchitecture decisions, expressed in terms of pragmas (such as directives for parallelization and pipelining). To enable more people to design DSAs, it is desirable to automate such decisions with the help of deep learning for predicting the quality of HLS designs. This requires us a deeper understanding of the program, which is a combination of original code and pragmas. Naturally, these programs can be considered as sequence data, for which large language models (LLM) can help. In addition, these programs can be compiled and converted into a control data flow graph (CDFG), and the compiler also provides fine-grained alignment between the code tokens and the CDFG nodes. However, existing works either fail to leverage both modalities or combine the two in shallow or coarse ways. We propose ProgSG allowing the source code sequence modality and the graph modalities to interact with each other in a deep and fine-grained way. To alleviate the scarcity of labeled designs, a pre-training method is proposed based on a suite of compiler's data flow analysis tasks. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets show the superiority of ProgSG over baseline methods that either only consider one modality or combine the two without utilizing the alignment information.
In this paper, we propose an end-to-end Retrieval-Augmented Visual Language Model (REVEAL) that learns to encode world knowledge into a large-scale memory, and to retrieve from it to answer knowledge-intensive queries. REVEAL consists of four key components: the memory, the encoder, the retriever and the generator. The large-scale memory encodes various sources of multimodal world knowledge (e.g. image-text pairs, question answering pairs, knowledge graph triplets, etc) via a unified encoder. The retriever finds the most relevant knowledge entries in the memory, and the generator fuses the retrieved knowledge with the input query to produce the output. A key novelty in our approach is that the memory, encoder, retriever and generator are all pre-trained end-to-end on a massive amount of data. Furthermore, our approach can use a diverse set of multimodal knowledge sources, which is shown to result in significant gains. We show that REVEAL achieves state-of-the-art results on visual question answering and image captioning.
Answering open-domain questions requires world knowledge about in-context entities. As pre-trained Language Models (LMs) lack the power to store all required knowledge, external knowledge sources, such as knowledge graphs, are often used to augment LMs. In this work, we propose knOwledge REasOning empowered Language Model (OREO-LM), which consists of a novel Knowledge Interaction Layer that can be flexibly plugged into existing Transformer-based LMs to interact with a differentiable Knowledge Graph Reasoning module collaboratively. In this way, LM guides KG to walk towards the desired answer, while the retrieved knowledge improves LM. By adopting OREO-LM to RoBERTa and T5, we show significant performance gain, achieving state-of-art results in the Closed-Book setting. The performance enhancement is mainly from the KG reasoning's capacity to infer missing relational facts. In addition, OREO-LM provides reasoning paths as rationales to interpret the model's decision.