Organ at risk (OAR) segmentation is a critical process in radiotherapy treatment planning such as head and neck tumors. Nevertheless, in clinical practice, radiation oncologists predominantly perform OAR segmentations manually on CT scans. This manual process is highly time-consuming and expensive, limiting the number of patients who can receive timely radiotherapy. Additionally, CT scans offer lower soft-tissue contrast compared to MRI. Despite MRI providing superior soft-tissue visualization, its time-consuming nature makes it infeasible for real-time treatment planning. To address these challenges, we propose a method called SegReg, which utilizes Elastic Symmetric Normalization for registering MRI to perform OAR segmentation. SegReg outperforms the CT-only baseline by 16.78% in mDSC and 18.77% in mIoU, showing that it effectively combines the geometric accuracy of CT with the superior soft-tissue contrast of MRI, making accurate automated OAR segmentation for clinical practice become possible.
We propose a new method to reconstruct the 3D human body from RGB-D images with occlusions. The foremost challenge is the incompleteness of the RGB-D data due to occlusions between the body and the environment, leading to implausible reconstructions that suffer from severe human-scene penetration. To reconstruct a semantically and physically plausible human body, we propose to reduce the solution space based on scene information and prior knowledge. Our key idea is to constrain the solution space of the human body by considering the occluded body parts and visible body parts separately: modeling all plausible poses where the occluded body parts do not penetrate the scene, and constraining the visible body parts using depth data. Specifically, the first component is realized by a neural network that estimates the candidate region named the "free zone", a region carved out of the open space within which it is safe to search for poses of the invisible body parts without concern for penetration. The second component constrains the visible body parts using the "truncated shadow volume" of the scanned body point cloud. Furthermore, we propose to use a volume matching strategy, which yields better performance than surface matching, to match the human body with the confined region. We conducted experiments on the PROX dataset, and the results demonstrate that our method produces more accurate and plausible results compared with other methods.
Recent efforts to enable visual navigation using large language models have mainly focused on developing complex prompt systems. These systems incorporate instructions, observations, and history into massive text prompts, which are then combined with pre-trained large language models to facilitate visual navigation. In contrast, our approach aims to fine-tune large language models for visual navigation without extensive prompt engineering. Our design involves a simple text prompt, current observations, and a history collector model that gathers information from previous observations as input. For output, our design provides a probability distribution of possible actions that the agent can take during navigation. We train our model using human demonstrations and collision signals from the Habitat-Matterport 3D Dataset (HM3D). Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art behavior cloning methods and effectively reduces collision rates.
We introduce Ferret, a new Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM) capable of understanding spatial referring of any shape or granularity within an image and accurately grounding open-vocabulary descriptions. To unify referring and grounding in the LLM paradigm, Ferret employs a novel and powerful hybrid region representation that integrates discrete coordinates and continuous features jointly to represent a region in the image. To extract the continuous features of versatile regions, we propose a spatial-aware visual sampler, adept at handling varying sparsity across different shapes. Consequently, Ferret can accept diverse region inputs, such as points, bounding boxes, and free-form shapes. To bolster the desired capability of Ferret, we curate GRIT, a comprehensive refer-and-ground instruction tuning dataset including 1.1M samples that contain rich hierarchical spatial knowledge, with 95K hard negative data to promote model robustness. The resulting model not only achieves superior performance in classical referring and grounding tasks, but also greatly outperforms existing MLLMs in region-based and localization-demanded multimodal chatting. Our evaluations also reveal a significantly improved capability of describing image details and a remarkable alleviation in object hallucination. Code and data will be available at https://github.com/apple/ml-ferret
Camera sensors have been widely used in intelligent robotic systems. Developing camera sensors with high sensing efficiency has always been important to reduce the power, memory, and other related resources. Inspired by recent success on programmable sensors and deep optic methods, we design a novel video compressed sensing system with spatially-variant compression ratios, which achieves higher imaging quality than the existing snapshot compressed imaging methods with the same sensing costs. In this article, we also investigate the data transmission methods for programmable sensors, where the performance of communication systems is evaluated by the reconstructed images or videos rather than the transmission of sensor data itself. Usually, different reconstruction algorithms are designed for applications in high dynamic range imaging, video compressive sensing, or motion debluring. This task-aware property inspires a semantic communication framework for programmable sensors. In this work, a policy-gradient based reinforcement learning method is introduced to achieve the explicit trade-off between the compression (or transmission) rate and the image distortion. Numerical results show the superiority of the proposed methods over existing baselines.
Despite their remarkable achievements, modern Large Language Models (LLMs) encounter exorbitant computational and memory footprints. Recently, several works have shown significant success in training-free and data-free compression (pruning and quantization) of LLMs achieving 50-60% sparsity and reducing the bit-width down to 3 or 4 bits per weight, with negligible perplexity degradation over the uncompressed baseline. As recent research efforts are focused on developing increasingly sophisticated compression methods, our work takes a step back, and re-evaluates the effectiveness of existing SoTA compression methods, which rely on a fairly simple and widely questioned metric, perplexity (even for dense LLMs). We introduce Knowledge-Intensive Compressed LLM BenchmarK (LLM-KICK), a collection of carefully-curated tasks to re-define the evaluation protocol for compressed LLMs, which have significant alignment with their dense counterparts, and perplexity fail to capture subtle change in their true capabilities. LLM-KICK unveils many favorable merits and unfortunate plights of current SoTA compression methods: all pruning methods suffer significant performance degradation, sometimes at trivial sparsity ratios (e.g., 25-30%), and fail for N:M sparsity on knowledge-intensive tasks; current quantization methods are more successful than pruning; yet, pruned LLMs even at $\geq 50$% sparsity are robust in-context retrieval and summarization systems; among others. LLM-KICK is designed to holistically access compressed LLMs' ability for language understanding, reasoning, generation, in-context retrieval, in-context summarization, etc. We hope our study can foster the development of better LLM compression methods. All our related codes are planed to be open-sourced.
Unsupervised sentence representation learning aims to transform input sentences into fixed-length vectors enriched with intricate semantic information while obviating the reliance on labeled data. Recent progress within this field, propelled by contrastive learning and prompt engineering, has significantly bridged the gap between unsupervised and supervised strategies. Nonetheless, the potential utilization of Chain-of-Thought, remains largely untapped within this trajectory. To unlock latent capabilities within pre-trained models, such as BERT, we propose a two-stage approach for sentence representation: comprehension and summarization. Subsequently, the output of the latter phase is harnessed as the vectorized representation of the input sentence. For further performance enhancement, we meticulously refine both the contrastive learning loss function and the template denoising technique for prompt engineering. Rigorous experimentation substantiates our method, CoT-BERT, transcending a suite of robust baselines without necessitating other text representation models or external databases.
Sparse Mixture-of-Experts models (MoEs) have recently gained popularity due to their ability to decouple model size from inference efficiency by only activating a small subset of the model parameters for any given input token. As such, sparse MoEs have enabled unprecedented scalability, resulting in tremendous successes across domains such as natural language processing and computer vision. In this work, we instead explore the use of sparse MoEs to scale-down Vision Transformers (ViTs) to make them more attractive for resource-constrained vision applications. To this end, we propose a simplified and mobile-friendly MoE design where entire images rather than individual patches are routed to the experts. We also propose a stable MoE training procedure that uses super-class information to guide the router. We empirically show that our sparse Mobile Vision MoEs (V-MoEs) can achieve a better trade-off between performance and efficiency than the corresponding dense ViTs. For example, for the ViT-Tiny model, our Mobile V-MoE outperforms its dense counterpart by 3.39% on ImageNet-1k. For an even smaller ViT variant with only 54M FLOPs inference cost, our MoE achieves an improvement of 4.66%.
Text-to-image synthesis has made encouraging progress and attracted lots of public attention recently. However, popular evaluation metrics in this area, like the Inception Score and Fr'echet Inception Distance, incur several issues. First of all, they cannot explicitly assess the perceptual quality of generated images and poorly reflect the semantic alignment of each text-image pair. Also, they are inefficient and need to sample thousands of images to stabilise their evaluation results. In this paper, we propose to evaluate text-to-image generation performance by directly estimating the likelihood of the generated images using a pre-trained likelihood-based text-to-image generative model, i.e., a higher likelihood indicates better perceptual quality and better text-image alignment. To prevent the likelihood of being dominated by the non-crucial part of the generated image, we propose several new designs to develop a credit assignment strategy based on the semantic and perceptual significance of the image patches. In the experiments, we evaluate the proposed metric on multiple popular text-to-image generation models and datasets in accessing both the perceptual quality and the text-image alignment. Moreover, it can successfully assess the generation ability of these models with as few as a hundred samples, making it very efficient in practice.
Aggregation of multi-stage features has been revealed to play a significant role in semantic segmentation. Unlike previous methods employing point-wise summation or concatenation for feature aggregation, this study proposes the Category Feature Transformer (CFT) that explores the flow of category embedding and transformation among multi-stage features through the prevalent multi-head attention mechanism. CFT learns unified feature embeddings for individual semantic categories from high-level features during each aggregation process and dynamically broadcasts them to high-resolution features. Integrating the proposed CFT into a typical feature pyramid structure exhibits superior performance over a broad range of backbone networks. We conduct extensive experiments on popular semantic segmentation benchmarks. Specifically, the proposed CFT obtains a compelling 55.1% mIoU with greatly reduced model parameters and computations on the challenging ADE20K dataset.