The remarkable advancements in Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have not rendered them immune to challenges, particularly in the context of handling deceptive information in prompts, thus producing hallucinated responses under such conditions. To quantitatively assess this vulnerability, we present MAD-Bench, a carefully curated benchmark that contains 850 test samples divided into 6 categories, such as non-existent objects, count of objects, spatial relationship, and visual confusion. We provide a comprehensive analysis of popular MLLMs, ranging from GPT-4V, Gemini-Pro, to open-sourced models, such as LLaVA-1.5 and CogVLM. Empirically, we observe significant performance gaps between GPT-4V and other models; and previous robust instruction-tuned models, such as LRV-Instruction and LLaVA-RLHF, are not effective on this new benchmark. While GPT-4V achieves 75.02% accuracy on MAD-Bench, the accuracy of any other model in our experiments ranges from 5% to 35%. We further propose a remedy that adds an additional paragraph to the deceptive prompts to encourage models to think twice before answering the question. Surprisingly, this simple method can even double the accuracy; however, the absolute numbers are still too low to be satisfactory. We hope MAD-Bench can serve as a valuable benchmark to stimulate further research to enhance models' resilience against deceptive prompts.
In this paper, we build a visual dialogue dataset, named InfoVisDial, which provides rich informative answers in each round even with external knowledge related to the visual content. Different from existing datasets where the answer is compact and short, InfoVisDial contains long free-form answers with rich information in each round of dialogue. For effective data collection, the key idea is to bridge the large-scale multimodal model (e.g., GIT) and the language models (e.g., GPT-3). GIT can describe the image content even with scene text, while GPT-3 can generate informative dialogue based on the image description and appropriate prompting techniques. With such automatic pipeline, we can readily generate informative visual dialogue data at scale. Then, we ask human annotators to rate the generated dialogues to filter the low-quality conversations.Human analyses show that InfoVisDial covers informative and diverse dialogue topics: $54.4\%$ of the dialogue rounds are related to image scene texts, and $36.7\%$ require external knowledge. Each round's answer is also long and open-ended: $87.3\%$ of answers are unique with an average length of $8.9$, compared with $27.37\%$ and $2.9$ in VisDial. Last, we propose a strong baseline by adapting the GIT model for the visual dialogue task and fine-tune the model on InfoVisDial. Hopefully, our work can motivate more effort on this direction.
Recent advances in image tokenizers, such as VQ-VAE, have enabled text-to-image generation using auto-regressive methods, similar to language modeling. However, these methods have yet to leverage pre-trained language models, despite their adaptability to various downstream tasks. In this work, we explore this gap by adapting a pre-trained language model for auto-regressive text-to-image generation, and find that pre-trained language models offer limited help. We provide a two-fold explanation by analyzing tokens from each modality. First, we demonstrate that image tokens possess significantly different semantics compared to text tokens, rendering pre-trained language models no more effective in modeling them than randomly initialized ones. Second, the text tokens in the image-text datasets are too simple compared to normal language model pre-training data, which causes the catastrophic degradation of language models' capability.
We introduce Ferret, a new Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM) capable of understanding spatial referring of any shape or granularity within an image and accurately grounding open-vocabulary descriptions. To unify referring and grounding in the LLM paradigm, Ferret employs a novel and powerful hybrid region representation that integrates discrete coordinates and continuous features jointly to represent a region in the image. To extract the continuous features of versatile regions, we propose a spatial-aware visual sampler, adept at handling varying sparsity across different shapes. Consequently, Ferret can accept diverse region inputs, such as points, bounding boxes, and free-form shapes. To bolster the desired capability of Ferret, we curate GRIT, a comprehensive refer-and-ground instruction tuning dataset including 1.1M samples that contain rich hierarchical spatial knowledge, with 95K hard negative data to promote model robustness. The resulting model not only achieves superior performance in classical referring and grounding tasks, but also greatly outperforms existing MLLMs in region-based and localization-demanded multimodal chatting. Our evaluations also reveal a significantly improved capability of describing image details and a remarkable alleviation in object hallucination. Code and data will be available at https://github.com/apple/ml-ferret
Web-crawled datasets are pivotal to the success of pre-training vision-language models, exemplified by CLIP. However, web-crawled AltTexts can be noisy and potentially irrelevant to images, thereby undermining the crucial image-text alignment. Existing methods for rewriting captions using large language models (LLMs) have shown promise on small, curated datasets like CC3M and CC12M. Nevertheless, their efficacy on massive web-captured captions is constrained by the inherent noise and randomness in such data. In this study, we address this limitation by focusing on two key aspects: data quality and data variety. Unlike recent LLM rewriting techniques, we emphasize exploiting visual concepts and their integration into the captions to improve data quality. For data variety, we propose a novel mixed training scheme that optimally leverages AltTexts alongside newly generated Visual-enriched Captions (VeC). We use CLIP as one example and adapt the method for CLIP training on large-scale web-crawled datasets, named VeCLIP. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation of VeCLIP across small, medium, and large scales of raw data. Our results show significant advantages in image-text alignment and overall model performance, underscoring the effectiveness of VeCLIP in improving CLIP training. For example, VeCLIP achieves a remarkable over 20% improvement in COCO and Flickr30k retrieval tasks under the 12M setting. For data efficiency, we also achieve a notable over 3% improvement while using only 14% of the data employed in the vanilla CLIP and 11% in ALIGN.
Despite their remarkable achievements, modern Large Language Models (LLMs) encounter exorbitant computational and memory footprints. Recently, several works have shown significant success in training-free and data-free compression (pruning and quantization) of LLMs achieving 50-60% sparsity and reducing the bit-width down to 3 or 4 bits per weight, with negligible perplexity degradation over the uncompressed baseline. As recent research efforts are focused on developing increasingly sophisticated compression methods, our work takes a step back, and re-evaluates the effectiveness of existing SoTA compression methods, which rely on a fairly simple and widely questioned metric, perplexity (even for dense LLMs). We introduce Knowledge-Intensive Compressed LLM BenchmarK (LLM-KICK), a collection of carefully-curated tasks to re-define the evaluation protocol for compressed LLMs, which have significant alignment with their dense counterparts, and perplexity fail to capture subtle change in their true capabilities. LLM-KICK unveils many favorable merits and unfortunate plights of current SoTA compression methods: all pruning methods suffer significant performance degradation, sometimes at trivial sparsity ratios (e.g., 25-30%), and fail for N:M sparsity on knowledge-intensive tasks; current quantization methods are more successful than pruning; yet, pruned LLMs even at $\geq 50$% sparsity are robust in-context retrieval and summarization systems; among others. LLM-KICK is designed to holistically access compressed LLMs' ability for language understanding, reasoning, generation, in-context retrieval, in-context summarization, etc. We hope our study can foster the development of better LLM compression methods. All our related codes are planed to be open-sourced.
Instruction-based image editing improves the controllability and flexibility of image manipulation via natural commands without elaborate descriptions or regional masks. However, human instructions are sometimes too brief for current methods to capture and follow. Multimodal large language models (MLLMs) show promising capabilities in cross-modal understanding and visual-aware response generation via LMs. We investigate how MLLMs facilitate edit instructions and present MLLM-Guided Image Editing (MGIE). MGIE learns to derive expressive instructions and provides explicit guidance. The editing model jointly captures this visual imagination and performs manipulation through end-to-end training. We evaluate various aspects of Photoshop-style modification, global photo optimization, and local editing. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that expressive instructions are crucial to instruction-based image editing, and our MGIE can lead to a notable improvement in automatic metrics and human evaluation while maintaining competitive inference efficiency.
This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the taxonomy and evolution of multimodal foundation models that demonstrate vision and vision-language capabilities, focusing on the transition from specialist models to general-purpose assistants. The research landscape encompasses five core topics, categorized into two classes. (i) We start with a survey of well-established research areas: multimodal foundation models pre-trained for specific purposes, including two topics -- methods of learning vision backbones for visual understanding and text-to-image generation. (ii) Then, we present recent advances in exploratory, open research areas: multimodal foundation models that aim to play the role of general-purpose assistants, including three topics -- unified vision models inspired by large language models (LLMs), end-to-end training of multimodal LLMs, and chaining multimodal tools with LLMs. The target audiences of the paper are researchers, graduate students, and professionals in computer vision and vision-language multimodal communities who are eager to learn the basics and recent advances in multimodal foundation models.
We present MOFI, a new vision foundation model designed to learn image representations from noisy entity annotated images. MOFI differs from previous work in two key aspects: ($i$) pre-training data, and ($ii$) training recipe. Regarding data, we introduce a new approach to automatically assign entity labels to images from noisy image-text pairs. Our approach involves employing a named entity recognition model to extract entities from the alt-text, and then using a CLIP model to select the correct entities as labels of the paired image. The approach is simple, does not require costly human annotation, and can be readily scaled up to billions of image-text pairs mined from the web. Through this method, we have created Image-to-Entities (I2E), a new large-scale dataset with 1 billion images and 2 million distinct entities, covering rich visual concepts in the wild. Building upon the I2E dataset, we study different training recipes, including supervised pre-training, contrastive pre-training, and multi-task learning. For constrastive pre-training, we treat entity names as free-form text, and further enrich them with entity descriptions. Experiments show that supervised pre-training with large-scale fine-grained entity labels is highly effective for image retrieval tasks, and multi-task training further improves the performance. The final MOFI model achieves 86.66% mAP on the challenging GPR1200 dataset, surpassing the previous state-of-the-art performance of 72.19% from OpenAI's CLIP model. Further experiments on zero-shot and linear probe image classification also show that MOFI outperforms a CLIP model trained on the original image-text data, demonstrating the effectiveness of the I2E dataset in learning strong image representations.