Graph neural networks have emerged as a powerful tool for graph representation learning, but their performance heavily relies on abundant task-specific supervision. To reduce labeling requirement, the "pre-train, prompt" paradigms have become increasingly common. However, existing study of prompting on graphs is limited, lacking a universal treatment to appeal to different downstream tasks. In this paper, we propose GraphPrompt, a novel pre-training and prompting framework on graphs. GraphPrompt not only unifies pre-training and downstream tasks into a common task template but also employs a learnable prompt to assist a downstream task in locating the most relevant knowledge from the pre-trained model in a task-specific manner. To further enhance GraphPrompt in these two stages, we extend it into GraphPrompt+ with two major enhancements. First, we generalize several popular graph pre-training tasks beyond simple link prediction to broaden the compatibility with our task template. Second, we propose a more generalized prompt design that incorporates a series of prompt vectors within every layer of the pre-trained graph encoder, in order to capitalize on the hierarchical information across different layers beyond just the readout layer. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on five public datasets to evaluate and analyze GraphPrompt and GraphPrompt+.
This paper proposes INTERactiVE chaiN Of Repairing (INTERVENOR), which mimics human code repairing behavior (iteratively judging, rethinking, and repairing) and prompts the coding ability of regard Large Language Models (LLMs). Specifically, INTERVENOR employs two LLM based agents, Code Learner and Code Teacher, to play different roles in code repairing and work interactively to repair the generated codes. The Code Learner is asked to generate and repair code according to the instructions from the Code Teacher. The Code Teacher rethinks the code errors according to the corresponding feedback from compilers and iteratively generates the chain-of-repairing (CoR) to guide the code repairing process for Code Learner. Our experiments show that INTERVENOR outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and achieves about 13% and 4.5% improvements over the GPT-3.5 model in code generation and code translation tasks, respectively. Our further analyses show that CoR can illuminate the bug reasons and solution plans via natural language. Thanks to the feedback of code compilers, INTERVENOR can accurately identify the syntax errors and assertion errors in the code and provide precise instructions to repair codes, making LLMs achieve the plateau performance with only three repairing turns. All data and codes are available at https://github.com/NEUIR/INTERVENOR
This paper proposes the User Viewing Flow Modeling (SINGLE) method for the article recommendation task, which models the user constant preference and instant interest from user-clicked articles. Specifically, we employ a user constant viewing flow modeling method to summarize the user's general interest to recommend articles. We utilize Large Language Models (LLMs) to capture constant user preferences from previously clicked articles, such as skills and positions. Then we design the user instant viewing flow modeling method to build interactions between user-clicked article history and candidate articles. It attentively reads the representations of user-clicked articles and aims to learn the user's different interest views to match the candidate article. Our experimental results on the Alibaba Technology Association (ATA) website show the advantage of SINGLE, which achieves 2.4% improvements over previous baseline models in the online A/B test. Our further analyses illustrate that SINGLE has the ability to build a more tailored recommendation system by mimicking different article viewing behaviors of users and recommending more appropriate and diverse articles to match user interests.
This paper introduces Web-DRO, an unsupervised dense retrieval model, which clusters documents based on web structures and reweights the groups during contrastive training. Specifically, we first leverage web graph links and contrastively train an embedding model for clustering anchor-document pairs. Then we use Group Distributional Robust Optimization to reweight different clusters of anchor-document pairs, which guides the model to assign more weights to the group with higher contrastive loss and pay more attention to the worst case during training. Our experiments on MS MARCO and BEIR show that our model, Web-DRO, significantly improves the retrieval effectiveness in unsupervised scenarios. A comparison of clustering techniques shows that training on the web graph combining URL information reaches optimal performance on clustering. Further analysis confirms that group weights are stable and valid, indicating consistent model preferences as well as effective up-weighting of valuable groups and down-weighting of uninformative ones. The code of this paper can be obtained from https://github.com/OpenMatch/Web-DRO.
This paper proposes Multi-modAl Retrieval model via Visual modulE pLugin (MARVEL) to learn an embedding space for queries and multi-modal documents to conduct retrieval. MARVEL encodes queries and multi-modal documents with a unified encoder model, which helps to alleviate the modality gap between images and texts. Specifically, we enable the image understanding ability of a well-trained dense retriever, T5-ANCE, by incorporating the image features encoded by the visual module as its inputs. To facilitate the multi-modal retrieval tasks, we build the ClueWeb22-MM dataset based on the ClueWeb22 dataset, which regards anchor texts as queries, and exact the related texts and image documents from anchor linked web pages. Our experiments show that MARVEL significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the multi-modal retrieval dataset WebQA and ClueWeb22-MM. Our further analyses show that the visual module plugin method is tailored to enable the image understanding ability for an existing dense retrieval model. Besides, we also show that the language model has the ability to extract image semantics from image encoders and adapt the image features in the input space of language models. All codes are available at https://github.com/OpenMatch/MARVEL.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable progress in utilizing tools, but their closed-source nature and high inference costs pose limitations on their adaptability, necessitating a valid method that leverages smaller, open-sourced models. In this paper, we introduce Toolink, a comprehensive framework that performs task-solving by first creating a toolkit and then integrating the planning and calling of tools through a chain-of-solving (CoS) approach. We first validate the efficacy of Toolink in harnessing the model's creativity and CoS ability on ChatGPT. Subsequently, we curate CoS-GPT, a chain-of-solving dataset designed for tool-using, and finetune the LLaMA-7B model. It results in LLaMA-CoS, a powerful open-source model with advanced tool-planning and tool-calling capabilities. Evaluation on diverse tasks from BIG-bench demonstrates its CoS ability matches that of ChatGPT while its performance surpasses the chain-of-thought approach. Further studies highlight the generalization of LLaMA-CoS to unseen tasks and showcase its capability in using toolkits not explicitly tailored for the target task, affirming its robustness in real-world scenarios. All codes and data are released.
This paper proposes Text mAtching based SequenTial rEcommendation model (TASTE), which maps items and users in an embedding space and recommends items by matching their text representations. TASTE verbalizes items and user-item interactions using identifiers and attributes of items. To better characterize user behaviors, TASTE additionally proposes an attention sparsity method, which enables TASTE to model longer user-item interactions by reducing the self-attention computations during encoding. Our experiments show that TASTE outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on widely used sequential recommendation datasets. TASTE alleviates the cold start problem by representing long-tail items using full-text modeling and bringing the benefits of pretrained language models to recommendation systems. Our further analyses illustrate that TASTE significantly improves the recommendation accuracy by reducing the popularity bias of previous item id based recommendation models and returning more appropriate and text-relevant items to satisfy users. All codes are available at https://github.com/OpenMatch/TASTE.
This paper presents Structure Aware Dense Retrieval (SANTA) model, which encodes user queries and structured data in one universal embedding space for retrieving structured data. SANTA proposes two pretraining methods to make language models structure-aware and learn effective representations for structured data: 1) Structured Data Alignment, which utilizes the natural alignment relations between structured data and unstructured data for structure-aware pretraining. It contrastively trains language models to represent multi-modal text data and teaches models to distinguish matched structured data for unstructured texts. 2) Masked Entity Prediction, which designs an entity-oriented mask strategy and asks language models to fill in the masked entities. Our experiments show that SANTA achieves state-of-the-art on code search and product search and conducts convincing results in the zero-shot setting. SANTA learns tailored representations for multi-modal text data by aligning structured and unstructured data pairs and capturing structural semantics by masking and predicting entities in the structured data. All codes are available at https://github.com/OpenMatch/OpenMatch.
Common IR pipelines are typically cascade systems that may involve multiple rankers and/or fusion models to integrate different information step-by-step. In this paper, we propose a novel re-ranker named Fusion-in-T5 (FiT5), which integrates document text information, retrieval features, and global document information into a single unified model using templated-based input and global attention. Experiments on passage ranking benchmarks MS MARCO and TREC DL show that FiT5 significantly improves ranking performance over prior pipelines. Analyses find that through global attention, FiT5 is able to jointly utilize the ranking features via gradually attending to related documents, and thus improve the detection of subtle nuances between them. Our code will be open-sourced.
Hypergraphs can model higher-order relationships among data objects that are found in applications such as social networks and bioinformatics. However, recent studies on hypergraph learning that extend graph convolutional networks to hypergraphs cannot learn effectively from features of unlabeled data. To such learning, we propose a contrastive hypergraph neural network, CHGNN, that exploits self-supervised contrastive learning techniques to learn from labeled and unlabeled data. First, CHGNN includes an adaptive hypergraph view generator that adopts an auto-augmentation strategy and learns a perturbed probability distribution of minimal sufficient views. Second, CHGNN encompasses an improved hypergraph encoder that considers hyperedge homogeneity to fuse information effectively. Third, CHGNN is equipped with a joint loss function that combines a similarity loss for the view generator, a node classification loss, and a hyperedge homogeneity loss to inject supervision signals. It also includes basic and cross-validation contrastive losses, associated with an enhanced contrastive loss training process. Experimental results on nine real datasets offer insight into the effectiveness of CHGNN, showing that it outperforms 13 competitors in terms of classification accuracy consistently.