Semi-supervised learning (SSL) methods effectively leverage unlabeled data to improve model generalization. However, SSL models often underperform in open-set scenarios, where unlabeled data contain outliers from novel categories that do not appear in the labeled set. In this paper, we study the challenging and realistic open-set SSL setting, where the goal is to both correctly classify inliers and to detect outliers. Intuitively, the inlier classifier should be trained on inlier data only. However, we find that inlier classification performance can be largely improved by incorporating high-confidence pseudo-labeled data, regardless of whether they are inliers or outliers. Also, we propose to utilize non-linear transformations to separate the features used for inlier classification and outlier detection in the multi-task learning framework, preventing adverse effects between them. Additionally, we introduce pseudo-negative mining, which further boosts outlier detection performance. The three ingredients lead to what we call Simple but Strong Baseline (SSB) for open-set SSL. In experiments, SSB greatly improves both inlier classification and outlier detection performance, outperforming existing methods by a large margin. Our code will be released at https://github.com/YUE-FAN/SSB.
A pivotal aim in contemporary AI research is to develop agents proficient in multi-agent coordination, enabling effective collaboration with both humans and other systems. Large Language Models (LLMs), with their notable ability to understand, generate, and interpret language in a human-like manner, stand out as promising candidates for the development of such agents. In this study, we build and assess the effectiveness of agents crafted using LLMs in various coordination scenarios. We introduce the LLM-Coordination (LLM-Co) Framework, specifically designed to enable LLMs to play coordination games. With the LLM-Co framework, we conduct our evaluation with three game environments and organize the evaluation into five aspects: Theory of Mind, Situated Reasoning, Sustained Coordination, Robustness to Partners, and Explicit Assistance. First, the evaluation of the Theory of Mind and Situated Reasoning reveals the capabilities of LLM to infer the partner's intention and reason actions accordingly. Then, the evaluation around Sustained Coordination and Robustness to Partners further showcases the ability of LLMs to coordinate with an unknown partner in complex long-horizon tasks, outperforming Reinforcement Learning baselines. Lastly, to test Explicit Assistance, which refers to the ability of an agent to offer help proactively, we introduce two novel layouts into the Overcooked-AI benchmark, examining if agents can prioritize helping their partners, sacrificing time that could have been spent on their tasks. This research underscores the promising capabilities of LLMs in sophisticated coordination environments and reveals the potential of LLMs in building strong real-world agents for multi-agent coordination.
We develop a method that recovers the surface, materials, and illumination of a scene from its posed multi-view images. In contrast to prior work, it does not require any additional data and can handle glossy objects or bright lighting. It is a progressive inverse rendering approach, which consists of three stages. First, we reconstruct the scene radiance and signed distance function (SDF) with our novel regularization strategy for specular reflections. Our approach considers both the diffuse and specular colors, which allows for handling complex view-dependent lighting effects for surface reconstruction. Second, we distill light visibility and indirect illumination from the learned SDF and radiance field using learnable mapping functions. Third, we design a method for estimating the ratio of incoming direct light represented via Spherical Gaussians reflected in a specular manner and then reconstruct the materials and direct illumination of the scene. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the current state-of-the-art in recovering surfaces, materials, and lighting without relying on any additional data.
The ability to assist humans during a navigation task in a supportive role is crucial for intelligent agents. Such agents, equipped with environment knowledge and conversational abilities, can guide individuals through unfamiliar terrains by generating natural language responses to their inquiries, grounded in the visual information of their surroundings. However, these multimodal conversational navigation helpers are still underdeveloped. This paper proposes a new benchmark, Respond to Help (R2H), to build multimodal navigation helpers that can respond to help, based on existing dialog-based embodied datasets. R2H mainly includes two tasks: (1) Respond to Dialog History (RDH), which assesses the helper agent's ability to generate informative responses based on a given dialog history, and (2) Respond during Interaction (RdI), which evaluates the helper agent's ability to maintain effective and consistent cooperation with a task performer agent during navigation in real-time. Furthermore, we propose a novel task-oriented multimodal response generation model that can see and respond, named SeeRee, as the navigation helper to guide the task performer in embodied tasks. Through both automatic and human evaluations, we show that SeeRee produces more effective and informative responses than baseline methods in assisting the task performer with different navigation tasks. Project website: https://sites.google.com/view/respond2help/home.
The critical challenge of Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) is how to effectively leverage the limited labeled data and massive unlabeled data to improve the model's generalization performance. In this paper, we first revisit the popular pseudo-labeling methods via a unified sample weighting formulation and demonstrate the inherent quantity-quality trade-off problem of pseudo-labeling with thresholding, which may prohibit learning. To this end, we propose SoftMatch to overcome the trade-off by maintaining both high quantity and high quality of pseudo-labels during training, effectively exploiting the unlabeled data. We derive a truncated Gaussian function to weight samples based on their confidence, which can be viewed as a soft version of the confidence threshold. We further enhance the utilization of weakly-learned classes by proposing a uniform alignment approach. In experiments, SoftMatch shows substantial improvements across a wide variety of benchmarks, including image, text, and imbalanced classification.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) has shown great promise in leveraging unlabeled data to improve model performance. While standard SSL assumes uniform data distribution, we consider a more realistic and challenging setting called imbalanced SSL, where imbalanced class distributions occur in both labeled and unlabeled data. Although there are existing endeavors to tackle this challenge, their performance degenerates when facing severe imbalance since they can not reduce the class imbalance sufficiently and effectively. In this paper, we study a simple yet overlooked baseline -- SimiS -- which tackles data imbalance by simply supplementing labeled data with pseudo-labels, according to the difference in class distribution from the most frequent class. Such a simple baseline turns out to be highly effective in reducing class imbalance. It outperforms existing methods by a significant margin, e.g., 12.8%, 13.6%, and 16.7% over previous SOTA on CIFAR100-LT, FOOD101-LT, and ImageNet127 respectively. The reduced imbalance results in faster convergence and better pseudo-label accuracy of SimiS. The simplicity of our method also makes it possible to be combined with other re-balancing techniques to improve the performance further. Moreover, our method shows great robustness to a wide range of data distributions, which holds enormous potential in practice. Code will be publicly available.
Building a conversational embodied agent to execute real-life tasks has been a long-standing yet quite challenging research goal, as it requires effective human-agent communication, multi-modal understanding, long-range sequential decision making, etc. Traditional symbolic methods have scaling and generalization issues, while end-to-end deep learning models suffer from data scarcity and high task complexity, and are often hard to explain. To benefit from both worlds, we propose a Neuro-Symbolic Commonsense Reasoning (JARVIS) framework for modular, generalizable, and interpretable conversational embodied agents. First, it acquires symbolic representations by prompting large language models (LLMs) for language understanding and sub-goal planning, and by constructing semantic maps from visual observations. Then the symbolic module reasons for sub-goal planning and action generation based on task- and action-level common sense. Extensive experiments on the TEACh dataset validate the efficacy and efficiency of our JARVIS framework, which achieves state-of-the-art (SOTA) results on all three dialog-based embodied tasks, including Execution from Dialog History (EDH), Trajectory from Dialog (TfD), and Two-Agent Task Completion (TATC) (e.g., our method boosts the unseen Success Rate on EDH from 6.1\% to 15.8\%). Moreover, we systematically analyze the essential factors that affect the task performance and also demonstrate the superiority of our method in few-shot settings. Our JARVIS model ranks first in the Alexa Prize SimBot Public Benchmark Challenge.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) improves model generalization by leveraging massive unlabeled data to augment limited labeled samples. However, currently, popular SSL evaluation protocols are often constrained to computer vision (CV) tasks. In addition, previous work typically trains deep neural networks from scratch, which is time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. To address the above issues, we construct a Unified SSL Benchmark (USB) by selecting 15 diverse, challenging, and comprehensive tasks from CV, natural language processing (NLP), and audio processing (Audio), on which we systematically evaluate dominant SSL methods, and also open-source a modular and extensible codebase for fair evaluation on these SSL methods. We further provide pre-trained versions of the state-of-the-art neural models for CV tasks to make the cost affordable for further tuning. USB enables the evaluation of a single SSL algorithm on more tasks from multiple domains but with less cost. Specifically, on a single NVIDIA V100, only 37 GPU days are required to evaluate FixMatch on 15 tasks in USB while 335 GPU days (279 GPU days on 4 CV datasets except for ImageNet) are needed on 5 CV tasks with the typical protocol.
The ability to converse with humans and follow commands in natural language is crucial for intelligent unmanned aerial vehicles (a.k.a. drones). It can relieve people's burden of holding a controller all the time, allow multitasking, and make drone control more accessible for people with disabilities or with their hands occupied. To this end, we introduce Aerial Vision-and-Dialog Navigation (AVDN), to navigate a drone via natural language conversation. We build a drone simulator with a continuous photorealistic environment and collect a new AVDN dataset of over 3k recorded navigation trajectories with asynchronous human-human dialogs between commanders and followers. The commander provides initial navigation instruction and further guidance by request, while the follower navigates the drone in the simulator and asks questions when needed. During data collection, followers' attention on the drone's visual observation is also recorded. Based on the AVDN dataset, we study the tasks of aerial navigation from (full) dialog history and propose an effective Human Attention Aided (HAA) baseline model, which learns to predict both navigation waypoints and human attention. Dataset and code will be released.
Consistency regularization is one of the most widely-used techniques for semi-supervised learning (SSL). Generally, the aim is to train a model that is invariant to various data augmentations. In this paper, we revisit this idea and find that enforcing invariance by decreasing distances between features from differently augmented images leads to improved performance. However, encouraging equivariance instead, by increasing the feature distance, further improves performance. To this end, we propose an improved consistency regularization framework by a simple yet effective technique, FeatDistLoss, that imposes consistency and equivariance on the classifier and the feature level, respectively. Experimental results show that our model defines a new state of the art for various datasets and settings and outperforms previous work by a significant margin, particularly in low data regimes. Extensive experiments are conducted to analyze the method, and the code will be published.