The accuracy of 3D Human Pose and Shape reconstruction (HPS) from an image is progressively improving. Yet, no known method is robust across all image distortion. To address issues due to variations of camera poses, we introduce SHARE, a novel fine-tuning method that utilizes adversarial data augmentation to enhance the robustness of existing HPS techniques. We perform a comprehensive analysis on the impact of camera poses on HPS reconstruction outcomes. We first generated large-scale image datasets captured systematically from diverse camera perspectives. We then established a mapping between camera poses and reconstruction errors as a continuous function that characterizes the relationship between camera poses and HPS quality. Leveraging this representation, we introduce RoME (Regions of Maximal Error), a novel sampling technique for our adversarial fine-tuning method. The SHARE framework is generalizable across various single-view HPS methods and we demonstrate its performance on HMR, SPIN, PARE, CLIFF and ExPose. Our results illustrate a reduction in mean joint errors across single-view HPS techniques, for images captured from multiple camera positions without compromising their baseline performance. In many challenging cases, our method surpasses the performance of existing models, highlighting its practical significance for diverse real-world applications.
Collaborative decision-making is an essential capability for multi-robot systems, such as connected vehicles, to collaboratively control autonomous vehicles in accident-prone scenarios. Under limited communication bandwidth, capturing comprehensive situational awareness by integrating connected agents' observation is very challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel collaborative decision-making method that efficiently and effectively integrates collaborators' representations to control the ego vehicle in accident-prone scenarios. Our approach formulates collaborative decision-making as a classification problem. We first represent sequences of raw observations as spatiotemporal graphs, which significantly reduce the package size to share among connected vehicles. Then we design a novel spatiotemporal graph neural network based on heterogeneous graph learning, which analyzes spatial and temporal connections of objects in a unified way for collaborative decision-making. We evaluate our approach using a high-fidelity simulator that considers realistic traffic, communication bandwidth, and vehicle sensing among connected autonomous vehicles. The experimental results show that our representation achieves over 100x reduction in the shared data size that meets the requirements of communication bandwidth for connected autonomous driving. In addition, our approach achieves over 30% improvements in driving safety.
The distributed data analytic system -- Spark is a common choice for processing massive volumes of heterogeneous data, while it is challenging to tune its parameters to achieve high performance. Recent studies try to employ auto-tuning techniques to solve this problem but suffer from three issues: limited functionality, high overhead, and inefficient search. In this paper, we present a general and efficient Spark tuning framework that can deal with the three issues simultaneously. First, we introduce a generalized tuning formulation, which can support multiple tuning goals and constraints conveniently, and a Bayesian optimization (BO) based solution to solve this generalized optimization problem. Second, to avoid high overhead from additional offline evaluations in existing methods, we propose to tune parameters along with the actual periodic executions of each job (i.e., online evaluations). To ensure safety during online job executions, we design a safe configuration acquisition method that models the safe region. Finally, three innovative techniques are leveraged to further accelerate the search process: adaptive sub-space generation, approximate gradient descent, and meta-learning method. We have implemented this framework as an independent cloud service, and applied it to the data platform in Tencent. The empirical results on both public benchmarks and large-scale production tasks demonstrate its superiority in terms of practicality, generality, and efficiency. Notably, this service saves an average of 57.00% memory cost and 34.93% CPU cost on 25K in-production tasks within 20 iterations, respectively.
Black-box optimization (BBO) has a broad range of applications, including automatic machine learning, experimental design, and database knob tuning. However, users still face challenges when applying BBO methods to their problems at hand with existing software packages in terms of applicability, performance, and efficiency. This paper presents OpenBox, an open-source BBO toolkit with improved usability. It implements user-friendly inferfaces and visualization for users to define and manage their tasks. The modular design behind OpenBox facilitates its flexible deployment in existing systems. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of OpenBox over existing systems. The source code of OpenBox is available at https://github.com/PKU-DAIR/open-box.
A wide spectrum of design and decision problems, including parameter tuning, A/B testing and drug design, intrinsically are instances of black-box optimization. Bayesian optimization (BO) is a powerful tool that models and optimizes such expensive "black-box" functions. However, at the beginning of optimization, vanilla Bayesian optimization methods often suffer from slow convergence issue due to inaccurate modeling based on few trials. To address this issue, researchers in the BO community propose to incorporate the spirit of transfer learning to accelerate optimization process, which could borrow strength from the past tasks (source tasks) to accelerate the current optimization problem (target task). This survey paper first summarizes transfer learning methods for Bayesian optimization from four perspectives: initial points design, search space design, surrogate model, and acquisition function. Then it highlights its methodological aspects and technical details for each approach. Finally, it showcases a wide range of applications and proposes promising future directions.
Distributed data analytic engines like Spark are common choices to process massive data in industry. However, the performance of Spark SQL highly depends on the choice of configurations, where the optimal ones vary with the executed workloads. Among various alternatives for Spark SQL tuning, Bayesian optimization (BO) is a popular framework that finds near-optimal configurations given sufficient budget, but it suffers from the re-optimization issue and is not practical in real production. When applying transfer learning to accelerate the tuning process, we notice two domain-specific challenges: 1) most previous work focus on transferring tuning history, while expert knowledge from Spark engineers is of great potential to improve the tuning performance but is not well studied so far; 2) history tasks should be carefully utilized, where using dissimilar ones lead to a deteriorated performance in production. In this paper, we present Rover, a deployed online Spark SQL tuning service for efficient and safe search on industrial workloads. To address the challenges, we propose generalized transfer learning to boost the tuning performance based on external knowledge, including expert-assisted Bayesian optimization and controlled history transfer. Experiments on public benchmarks and real-world tasks show the superiority of Rover over competitive baselines. Notably, Rover saves an average of 50.1% of the memory cost on 12k real-world Spark SQL tasks in 20 iterations, among which 76.2% of the tasks achieve a significant memory reduction of over 60%.
The Combined Algorithm Selection and Hyperparameters optimization (CASH) problem is one of the fundamental problems in Automated Machine Learning (AutoML). Motivated by the success of ensemble learning, recent AutoML systems build post-hoc ensembles to output the final predictions instead of using the best single learner. However, while most CASH methods focus on searching for a single learner with the best performance, they neglect the diversity among base learners (i.e., they may suggest similar configurations to previously evaluated ones), which is also a crucial consideration when building an ensemble. To tackle this issue and further enhance the ensemble performance, we propose DivBO, a diversity-aware framework to inject explicit search of diversity into the CASH problems. In the framework, we propose to use a diversity surrogate to predict the pair-wise diversity of two unseen configurations. Furthermore, we introduce a temporary pool and a weighted acquisition function to guide the search of both performance and diversity based on Bayesian optimization. Empirical results on 15 public datasets show that DivBO achieves the best average ranks (1.82 and 1.73) on both validation and test errors among 10 compared methods, including post-hoc designs in recent AutoML systems and state-of-the-art baselines for ensemble learning on CASH problems.
End-to-end AutoML has attracted intensive interests from both academia and industry which automatically searches for ML pipelines in a space induced by feature engineering, algorithm/model selection, and hyper-parameter tuning. Existing AutoML systems, however, suffer from scalability issues when applying to application domains with large, high-dimensional search spaces. We present VolcanoML, a scalable and extensible framework that facilitates systematic exploration of large AutoML search spaces. VolcanoML introduces and implements basic building blocks that decompose a large search space into smaller ones, and allows users to utilize these building blocks to compose an execution plan for the AutoML problem at hand. VolcanoML further supports a Volcano-style execution model -- akin to the one supported by modern database systems -- to execute the plan constructed. Our evaluation demonstrates that, not only does VolcanoML raise the level of expressiveness for search space decomposition in AutoML, it also leads to actual findings of decomposition strategies that are significantly more efficient than the ones employed by state-of-the-art AutoML systems such as auto-sklearn. This paper is the extended version of the initial VolcanoML paper appeared in VLDB 2021.
* VLDB Journal, 2022 * This paper is an extended version of the initial VolcanoML paper (li
et al. VLDB 2021). arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with
Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) have shown prominent performance in graph representation learning by leveraging knowledge from both graph structure and node features. However, most of them have two major limitations. First, GNNs can learn higher-order structural information by stacking more layers but can not deal with large depth due to the over-smoothing issue. Second, it is not easy to apply these methods on large graphs due to the expensive computation cost and high memory usage. In this paper, we present node-adaptive feature smoothing (NAFS), a simple non-parametric method that constructs node representations without parameter learning. NAFS first extracts the features of each node with its neighbors of different hops by feature smoothing, and then adaptively combines the smoothed features. Besides, the constructed node representation can further be enhanced by the ensemble of smoothed features extracted via different smoothing strategies. We conduct experiments on four benchmark datasets on two different application scenarios: node clustering and link prediction. Remarkably, NAFS with feature ensemble outperforms the state-of-the-art GNNs on these tasks and mitigates the aforementioned two limitations of most learning-based GNN counterparts.