With the rapid development of Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs), a number of diagnostic benchmarks have recently emerged to evaluate the comprehension capabilities of these models. However, most benchmarks predominantly assess spatial understanding in the static image tasks, while overlooking temporal understanding in the dynamic video tasks. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a comprehensive Multi-modal Video understanding Benchmark, namely MVBench, which covers 20 challenging video tasks that cannot be effectively solved with a single frame. Specifically, we first introduce a novel static-to-dynamic method to define these temporal-related tasks. By transforming various static tasks into dynamic ones, we enable the systematic generation of video tasks that require a broad spectrum of temporal skills, ranging from perception to cognition. Then, guided by the task definition, we automatically convert public video annotations into multiple-choice QA to evaluate each task. On one hand, such a distinct paradigm allows us to build MVBench efficiently, without much manual intervention. On the other hand, it guarantees evaluation fairness with ground-truth video annotations, avoiding the biased scoring of LLMs. Moreover, we further develop a robust video MLLM baseline, i.e., VideoChat2, by progressive multi-modal training with diverse instruction-tuning data. The extensive results on our MVBench reveal that, the existing MLLMs are far from satisfactory in temporal understanding, while our VideoChat2 largely surpasses these leading models by over 15% on MVBench. All models and data are available at https://github.com/OpenGVLab/Ask-Anything.
The ability to perceive how objects change over time is a crucial ingredient in human intelligence. However, current benchmarks cannot faithfully reflect the temporal understanding abilities of video-language models (VidLMs) due to the existence of static visual shortcuts. To remedy this issue, we present VITATECS, a diagnostic VIdeo-Text dAtaset for the evaluation of TEmporal Concept underStanding. Specifically, we first introduce a fine-grained taxonomy of temporal concepts in natural language in order to diagnose the capability of VidLMs to comprehend different temporal aspects. Furthermore, to disentangle the correlation between static and temporal information, we generate counterfactual video descriptions that differ from the original one only in the specified temporal aspect. We employ a semi-automatic data collection framework using large language models and human-in-the-loop annotation to obtain high-quality counterfactual descriptions efficiently. Evaluation of representative video-language understanding models confirms their deficiency in temporal understanding, revealing the need for greater emphasis on the temporal elements in video-language research.
LLMs and AI chatbots have improved people's efficiency in various fields. However, the necessary knowledge for answering the question may be beyond the models' knowledge boundaries. To mitigate this issue, many researchers try to introduce external knowledge, such as knowledge graphs and Internet contents, into LLMs for up-to-date information. However, the external information from the Internet may include counterfactual information that will confuse the model and lead to an incorrect response. Thus there is a pressing need for LLMs to possess the ability to distinguish reliable information from external knowledge. Therefore, to evaluate the ability of LLMs to discern the reliability of external knowledge, we create a benchmark from existing knowledge bases. Our benchmark consists of two tasks, Question Answering and Text Generation, and for each task, we provide models with a context containing counterfactual information. Evaluation results show that existing LLMs are susceptible to interference from unreliable external knowledge with counterfactual information, and simple intervention methods make limited contributions to the alleviation of this issue.
We develop an advanced approach for extending Gaussian Differential Privacy (GDP) to general Riemannian manifolds. The concept of GDP stands out as a prominent privacy definition that strongly warrants extension to manifold settings, due to its central limit properties. By harnessing the power of the renowned Bishop-Gromov theorem in geometric analysis, we propose a Riemannian Gaussian distribution that integrates the Riemannian distance, allowing us to achieve GDP in Riemannian manifolds with bounded Ricci curvature. To the best of our knowledge, this work marks the first instance of extending the GDP framework to accommodate general Riemannian manifolds, encompassing curved spaces, and circumventing the reliance on tangent space summaries. We provide a simple algorithm to evaluate the privacy budget $\mu$ on any one-dimensional manifold and introduce a versatile Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-based algorithm to calculate $\mu$ on any Riemannian manifold with constant curvature. Through simulations on one of the most prevalent manifolds in statistics, the unit sphere $S^d$, we demonstrate the superior utility of our Riemannian Gaussian mechanism in comparison to the previously proposed Riemannian Laplace mechanism for implementing GDP.
Representation Learning on Knowledge Graphs (KGs) is essential for downstream tasks. The dominant approach, KG Embedding (KGE), represents entities with independent vectors and faces the scalability challenge. Recent studies propose an alternative way for parameter efficiency, which represents entities by composing entity-corresponding codewords matched from predefined small-scale codebooks. We refer to the process of obtaining corresponding codewords of each entity as entity quantization, for which previous works have designed complicated strategies. Surprisingly, this paper shows that simple random entity quantization can achieve similar results to current strategies. We analyze this phenomenon and reveal that entity codes, the quantization outcomes for expressing entities, have higher entropy at the code level and Jaccard distance at the codeword level under random entity quantization. Therefore, different entities become more easily distinguished, facilitating effective KG representation. The above results show that current quantization strategies are not critical for KG representation, and there is still room for improvement in entity distinguishability beyond current strategies. The code to reproduce our results is available at https://github.com/JiaangL/RandomQuantization.
While self-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms have been widely used to pre-train deep models, few efforts  have been done to improve representation learning of X-ray image analysis with SSL pre-trained models. In this work, we study a novel self-supervised pre-training pipeline, namely Multi-task Self-super-vised Continual Learning (MUSCLE), for multiple medical imaging tasks, such as classification and segmentation, using X-ray images collected from multiple body parts, including heads, lungs, and bones. Specifically, MUSCLE aggregates X-rays collected from multiple body parts for MoCo-based representation learning, and adopts a well-designed continual learning (CL) procedure to further pre-train the backbone subject various X-ray analysis tasks jointly. Certain strategies for image pre-processing, learning schedules, and regularization have been used to solve data heterogeneity, overfitting, and catastrophic forgetting problems for multi-task/dataset learning in MUSCLE.We evaluate MUSCLE using 9 real-world X-ray datasets with various tasks, including pneumonia classification, skeletal abnormality classification, lung segmentation, and tuberculosis (TB) detection. Comparisons against other pre-trained models  confirm the proof-of-concept that self-supervised multi-task/dataset continual pre-training could boost the performance of X-ray image analysis.
Since autonomous driving systems usually face dynamic and ever-changing environments, continual test-time adaptation (CTTA) has been proposed as a strategy for transferring deployed models to continually changing target domains. However, the pursuit of long-term adaptation often introduces catastrophic forgetting and error accumulation problems, which impede the practical implementation of CTTA in the real world. Recently, existing CTTA methods mainly focus on utilizing a majority of parameters to fit target domain knowledge through self-training. Unfortunately, these approaches often amplify the challenge of error accumulation due to noisy pseudo-labels, and pose practical limitations stemming from the heavy computational costs associated with entire model updates. In this paper, we propose a distribution-aware tuning (DAT) method to make the semantic segmentation CTTA efficient and practical in real-world applications. DAT adaptively selects and updates two small groups of trainable parameters based on data distribution during the continual adaptation process, including domain-specific parameters (DSP) and task-relevant parameters (TRP). Specifically, DSP exhibits sensitivity to outputs with substantial distribution shifts, effectively mitigating the problem of error accumulation. In contrast, TRP are allocated to positions that are responsive to outputs with minor distribution shifts, which are fine-tuned to avoid the catastrophic forgetting problem. In addition, since CTTA is a temporal task, we introduce the Parameter Accumulation Update (PAU) strategy to collect the updated DSP and TRP in target domain sequences. We conduct extensive experiments on two widely-used semantic segmentation CTTA benchmarks, achieving promising performance compared to previous state-of-the-art methods.
Multimodal stock trading volume movement prediction with stock-related news is one of the fundamental problems in the financial area. Existing multimodal works that train models from scratch face the problem of lacking universal knowledge when modeling financial news. In addition, the models ability may be limited by the lack of domain-related knowledge due to insufficient data in the datasets. To handle this issue, we propose the Prompt-based MUltimodal Stock volumE prediction model (ProMUSE) to process text and time series modalities. We use pre-trained language models for better comprehension of financial news and adopt prompt learning methods to leverage their capability in universal knowledge to model textual information. Besides, simply fusing two modalities can cause harm to the unimodal representations. Thus, we propose a novel cross-modality contrastive alignment while reserving the unimodal heads beside the fusion head to mitigate this problem. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed ProMUSE outperforms existing baselines. Comprehensive analyses further validate the effectiveness of our architecture compared to potential variants and learning mechanisms.
The popularity of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems nowadays leads to an increasing need for improving their accessibility. Handling stuttering speech is an important feature for accessible ASR systems. To improve the accessibility of ASR systems for stutterers, we need to expose and analyze the failures of ASR systems on stuttering speech. The speech datasets recorded from stutterers are not diverse enough to expose most of the failures. Furthermore, these datasets lack ground truth information about the non-stuttered text, rendering them unsuitable as comprehensive test suites. Therefore, a methodology for generating stuttering speech as test inputs to test and analyze the performance of ASR systems is needed. However, generating valid test inputs in this scenario is challenging. The reason is that although the generated test inputs should mimic how stutterers speak, they should also be diverse enough to trigger more failures. To address the challenge, we propose ASTER, a technique for automatically testing the accessibility of ASR systems. ASTER can generate valid test cases by injecting five different types of stuttering. The generated test cases can both simulate realistic stuttering speech and expose failures in ASR systems. Moreover, ASTER can further enhance the quality of the test cases with a multi-objective optimization-based seed updating algorithm. We implemented ASTER as a framework and evaluated it on four open-source ASR models and three commercial ASR systems. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation of ASTER and find that it significantly increases the word error rate, match error rate, and word information loss in the evaluated ASR systems. Additionally, our user study demonstrates that the generated stuttering audio is indistinguishable from real-world stuttering audio clips.