Large language models (LLMs) have revolutionized the field of artificial intelligence, enabling natural language processing tasks that were previously thought to be exclusive to humans. In this work, we introduce Qwen, the first installment of our large language model series. Qwen is a comprehensive language model series that encompasses distinct models with varying parameter counts. It includes Qwen, the base pretrained language models, and Qwen-Chat, the chat models finetuned with human alignment techniques. The base language models consistently demonstrate superior performance across a multitude of downstream tasks, and the chat models, particularly those trained using Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF), are highly competitive. The chat models possess advanced tool-use and planning capabilities for creating agent applications, showcasing impressive performance even when compared to bigger models on complex tasks like utilizing a code interpreter. Furthermore, we have developed coding-specialized models, Code-Qwen and Code-Qwen-Chat, as well as mathematics-focused models, Math-Qwen-Chat, which are built upon base language models. These models demonstrate significantly improved performance in comparison with open-source models, and slightly fall behind the proprietary models.
This paper proposes a new method, OFA-OCR, to transfer multimodal pretrained models to text recognition. Specifically, we recast text recognition as image captioning and directly transfer a unified vision-language pretrained model to the end task. Without pretraining on large-scale annotated or synthetic text recognition data, OFA-OCR outperforms the baselines and achieves state-of-the-art performance in the Chinese text recognition benchmark. Additionally, we construct an OCR pipeline with OFA-OCR, and we demonstrate that it can achieve competitive performance with the product-level API. The code (https://github.com/OFA-Sys/OFA) and demo (https://modelscope.cn/studios/damo/ofa_ocr_pipeline/summary) are publicly available.
Generalist models, which are capable of performing diverse multi-modal tasks in a task-agnostic way within a single model, have been explored recently. Being, hopefully, an alternative to approaching general-purpose AI, existing generalist models are still at an early stage, where modality and task coverage is limited. To empower multi-modal task-scaling and speed up this line of research, we release a generalist model learning system, OFASys, built on top of a declarative task interface named multi-modal instruction. At the core of OFASys is the idea of decoupling multi-modal task representations from the underlying model implementations. In OFASys, a task involving multiple modalities can be defined declaratively even with just a single line of code. The system automatically generates task plans from such instructions for training and inference. It also facilitates multi-task training for diverse multi-modal workloads. As a starting point, we provide presets of 7 different modalities and 23 highly-diverse example tasks in OFASys, with which we also develop a first-in-kind, single model, OFA+, that can handle text, image, speech, video, and motion data. The single OFA+ model achieves 95% performance in average with only 16% parameters of 15 task-finetuned models, showcasing the performance reliability of multi-modal task-scaling provided by OFASys. Available at https://github.com/OFA-Sys/OFASys
Vision-and-language (V-L) tasks require the system to understand both vision content and natural language, thus learning fine-grained joint representations of vision and language (a.k.a. V-L representations) is of paramount importance. Recently, various pre-trained V-L models are proposed to learn V-L representations and achieve improved results in many tasks. However, the mainstream models process both vision and language inputs with the same set of attention matrices. As a result, the generated V-L representations are entangled in one common latent space. To tackle this problem, we propose DiMBERT (short for Disentangled Multimodal-Attention BERT), which is a novel framework that applies separated attention spaces for vision and language, and the representations of multi-modalities can thus be disentangled explicitly. To enhance the correlation between vision and language in disentangled spaces, we introduce the visual concepts to DiMBERT which represent visual information in textual format. In this manner, visual concepts help to bridge the gap between the two modalities. We pre-train DiMBERT on a large amount of image-sentence pairs on two tasks: bidirectional language modeling and sequence-to-sequence language modeling. After pre-train, DiMBERT is further fine-tuned for the downstream tasks. Experiments show that DiMBERT sets new state-of-the-art performance on three tasks (over four datasets), including both generation tasks (image captioning and visual storytelling) and classification tasks (referring expressions). The proposed DiM (short for Disentangled Multimodal-Attention) module can be easily incorporated into existing pre-trained V-L models to boost their performance, up to a 5% increase on the representative task. Finally, we conduct a systematic analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of our DiM and the introduced visual concepts.
Investigating better ways to reuse the released pre-trained language models (PLMs) can significantly reduce the computational cost and the potential environmental side-effects. This paper explores a novel PLM reuse paradigm, Knowledge Integration (KI). Without human annotations available, KI aims to merge the knowledge from different teacher-PLMs, each of which specializes in a different classification problem, into a versatile student model. To achieve this, we first derive the correlation between virtual golden supervision and teacher predictions. We then design a Model Uncertainty--aware Knowledge Integration (MUKI) framework to recover the golden supervision for the student. Specifically, MUKI adopts Monte-Carlo Dropout to estimate model uncertainty for the supervision integration. An instance-wise re-weighting mechanism based on the margin of uncertainty scores is further incorporated, to deal with the potential conflicting supervision from teachers. Experimental results demonstrate that MUKI achieves substantial improvements over baselines on benchmark datasets. Further analysis shows that MUKI can generalize well for merging teacher models with heterogeneous architectures, and even teachers major in cross-lingual datasets.
Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) has demonstrated great potential in realizing open-vocabulary image classification in a matching style, because of its holistic use of natural language supervision that covers unconstrained real-world visual concepts. However, it is, in turn, also difficult to evaluate and analyze the openness of CLIP-like models, since they are in theory open to any vocabulary but the actual accuracy varies. To address the insufficiency of conventional studies on openness, we resort to an incremental view and define the extensibility, which essentially approximates the model's ability to deal with new visual concepts, by evaluating openness through vocabulary expansions. Our evaluation based on extensibility shows that CLIP-like models are hardly truly open and their performances degrade as the vocabulary expands to different degrees. Further analysis reveals that the over-estimation of openness is not because CLIP-like models fail to capture the general similarity of image and text features of novel visual concepts, but because of the confusion among competing text features, that is, they are not stable with respect to the vocabulary. In light of this, we propose to improve the openness of CLIP from the perspective of feature space by enforcing the distinguishability of text features. Our method retrieves relevant texts from the pre-training corpus to enhance prompts for inference, which boosts the extensibility and stability of CLIP even without fine-tuning.
Pre-trained models have achieved excellent performance on the dialogue task. However, for the continual increase of online chit-chat scenarios, directly fine-tuning these models for each of the new tasks not only explodes the capacity of the dialogue system on the embedded devices but also causes knowledge forgetting on pre-trained models and knowledge interference among diverse dialogue tasks. In this work, we propose a hierarchical inductive transfer framework to learn and deploy the dialogue skills continually and efficiently. First, we introduce the adapter module into pre-trained models for learning new dialogue tasks. As the only trainable module, it is beneficial for the dialogue system on the embedded devices to acquire new dialogue skills with negligible additional parameters. Then, for alleviating knowledge interference between tasks yet benefiting the regularization between them, we further design hierarchical inductive transfer that enables new tasks to use general knowledge in the base adapter without being misled by diverse knowledge in task-specific adapters. Empirical evaluation and analysis indicate that our framework obtains comparable performance under deployment-friendly model capacity.
As many fine-tuned pre-trained language models~(PLMs) with promising performance are generously released, investigating better ways to reuse these models is vital as it can greatly reduce the retraining computational cost and the potential environmental side-effects. In this paper, we explore a novel model reuse paradigm, Knowledge Amalgamation~(KA) for PLMs. Without human annotations available, KA aims to merge the knowledge from different teacher-PLMs, each of which specializes in a different classification problem, into a versatile student model. The achieve this, we design a Model Uncertainty--aware Knowledge Amalgamation~(MUKA) framework, which identifies the potential adequate teacher using Monte-Carlo Dropout for approximating the golden supervision to guide the student. Experimental results demonstrate that MUKA achieves substantial improvements over baselines on benchmark datasets. Further analysis shows that MUKA can generalize well under several complicate settings with multiple teacher models, heterogeneous teachers, and even cross-dataset teachers.
The conventional wisdom behind learning deep classification models is to focus on bad-classified examples and ignore well-classified examples that are far from the decision boundary. For instance, when training with cross-entropy loss, examples with higher likelihoods (i.e., well-classified examples) contribute smaller gradients in back-propagation. However, we theoretically show that this common practice hinders representation learning, energy optimization, and the growth of margin. To counteract this deficiency, we propose to reward well-classified examples with additive bonuses to revive their contribution to learning. This counterexample theoretically addresses these three issues. We empirically support this claim by directly verify the theoretical results or through the significant performance improvement with our counterexample on diverse tasks, including image classification, graph classification, and machine translation. Furthermore, this paper shows that because our idea can solve these three issues, we can deal with complex scenarios, such as imbalanced classification, OOD detection, and applications under adversarial attacks. Code is available at: https://github.com/lancopku/well-classified-examples-are-underestimated.