Large language models (LLMs) have revolutionized the field of artificial intelligence, enabling natural language processing tasks that were previously thought to be exclusive to humans. In this work, we introduce Qwen, the first installment of our large language model series. Qwen is a comprehensive language model series that encompasses distinct models with varying parameter counts. It includes Qwen, the base pretrained language models, and Qwen-Chat, the chat models finetuned with human alignment techniques. The base language models consistently demonstrate superior performance across a multitude of downstream tasks, and the chat models, particularly those trained using Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF), are highly competitive. The chat models possess advanced tool-use and planning capabilities for creating agent applications, showcasing impressive performance even when compared to bigger models on complex tasks like utilizing a code interpreter. Furthermore, we have developed coding-specialized models, Code-Qwen and Code-Qwen-Chat, as well as mathematics-focused models, Math-Qwen-Chat, which are built upon base language models. These models demonstrate significantly improved performance in comparison with open-source models, and slightly fall behind the proprietary models.
Generalist models, which are capable of performing diverse multi-modal tasks in a task-agnostic way within a single model, have been explored recently. Being, hopefully, an alternative to approaching general-purpose AI, existing generalist models are still at an early stage, where modality and task coverage is limited. To empower multi-modal task-scaling and speed up this line of research, we release a generalist model learning system, OFASys, built on top of a declarative task interface named multi-modal instruction. At the core of OFASys is the idea of decoupling multi-modal task representations from the underlying model implementations. In OFASys, a task involving multiple modalities can be defined declaratively even with just a single line of code. The system automatically generates task plans from such instructions for training and inference. It also facilitates multi-task training for diverse multi-modal workloads. As a starting point, we provide presets of 7 different modalities and 23 highly-diverse example tasks in OFASys, with which we also develop a first-in-kind, single model, OFA+, that can handle text, image, speech, video, and motion data. The single OFA+ model achieves 95% performance in average with only 16% parameters of 15 task-finetuned models, showcasing the performance reliability of multi-modal task-scaling provided by OFASys. Available at https://github.com/OFA-Sys/OFASys
The tremendous success of CLIP (Radford et al., 2021) has promoted the research and application of contrastive learning for vision-language pretraining. In this work, we construct a large-scale dataset of image-text pairs in Chinese, where most data are retrieved from publicly available datasets, and we pretrain Chinese CLIP models on the new dataset. We develop 5 Chinese CLIP models of multiple sizes, spanning from 77 to 958 million parameters. Furthermore, we propose a two-stage pretraining method, where the model is first trained with the image encoder frozen and then trained with all parameters being optimized, to achieve enhanced model performance. Our comprehensive experiments demonstrate that Chinese CLIP can achieve the state-of-the-art performance on MUGE, Flickr30K-CN, and COCO-CN in the setups of zero-shot learning and finetuning, and it is able to achieve competitive performance in zero-shot image classification based on the evaluation on the ELEVATER benchmark (Li et al., 2022). We have released our codes, models, and demos in https://github.com/OFA-Sys/Chinese-CLIP
In this work, we pursue a unified paradigm for multimodal pretraining to break the scaffolds of complex task/modality-specific customization. We propose OFA, a unified multimodal pretrained model that unifies modalities (i.e., cross-modality, vision, language) and tasks (e.g., image generation, visual grounding, image captioning, image classification, text generation, etc.) to a simple sequence-to-sequence learning framework based on the encoder-decoder architecture. OFA performs pretraining and finetuning with task instructions and introduces no extra task-specific layers for finetuning. Experimental results show that OFA achieves new state-of-the-arts on a series of multimodal tasks, including image captioning (COCO test CIDEr: 149.6), text-to-image generation (COCO test FID: 10.5), VQA (test-std acc.: 80.02), SNLI-VE (test acc.: 90.20), and referring expression comprehension (RefCOCO / RefCOCO+ / RefCOCOg test acc.: 92.93 / 90.10 / 85.20). Through extensive analyses, we demonstrate that OFA reaches comparable performance with uni-modal pretrained models (e.g., BERT, MAE, MoCo v3, SimCLR v2, etc.) in uni-modal tasks, including NLU, NLG, and image classification, and it effectively transfers to unseen tasks and domains. Code shall be released soon at http://github.com/OFA-Sys/OFA
Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) models can achieve promising results with outrageous large amount of parameters but constant computation cost, and thus it has become a trend in model scaling. Still it is a mystery how MoE layers bring quality gains by leveraging the parameters with sparse activation. In this work, we investigate several key factors in sparse expert models. We observe that load imbalance may not be a significant problem affecting model quality, contrary to the perspectives of recent studies, while the number of sparsely activated experts $k$ and expert capacity $C$ in top-$k$ routing can significantly make a difference in this context. Furthermore, we take a step forward to propose a simple method called expert prototyping that splits experts into different prototypes and applies $k$ top-$1$ routing. This strategy improves the model quality but maintains constant computational costs, and our further exploration on extremely large-scale models reflects that it is more effective in training larger models. We push the model scale to over $1$ trillion parameters and implement it on solely $480$ NVIDIA V100-32GB GPUs, in comparison with the recent SOTAs on $2048$ TPU cores. The proposed giant model achieves substantial speedup in convergence over the same-size baseline.
Despite the achievements of large-scale multimodal pre-training approaches, cross-modal retrieval, e.g., image-text retrieval, remains a challenging task. To bridge the semantic gap between the two modalities, previous studies mainly focus on word-region alignment at the object level, lacking the matching between the linguistic relation among the words and the visual relation among the regions. The neglect of such relation consistency impairs the contextualized representation of image-text pairs and hinders the model performance and the interpretability. In this paper, we first propose a novel metric, Intra-modal Self-attention Distance (ISD), to quantify the relation consistency by measuring the semantic distance between linguistic and visual relations. In response, we present Inter-modal Alignment on Intra-modal Self-attentions (IAIS), a regularized training method to optimize the ISD and calibrate intra-modal self-attentions from the two modalities mutually via inter-modal alignment. The IAIS regularizer boosts the performance of prevailing models on Flickr30k and MS COCO datasets by a considerable margin, which demonstrates the superiority of our approach.
Conditional image synthesis aims to create an image according to some multi-modal guidance in the forms of textual descriptions, reference images, and image blocks to preserve, as well as their combinations. In this paper, instead of investigating these control signals separately, we propose a new two-stage architecture, UFC-BERT, to unify any number of multi-modal controls. In UFC-BERT, both the diverse control signals and the synthesized image are uniformly represented as a sequence of discrete tokens to be processed by Transformer. Different from existing two-stage autoregressive approaches such as DALL-E and VQGAN, UFC-BERT adopts non-autoregressive generation (NAR) at the second stage to enhance the holistic consistency of the synthesized image, to support preserving specified image blocks, and to improve the synthesis speed. Further, we design a progressive algorithm that iteratively improves the non-autoregressively generated image, with the help of two estimators developed for evaluating the compliance with the controls and evaluating the fidelity of the synthesized image, respectively. Extensive experiments on a newly collected large-scale clothing dataset M2C-Fashion and a facial dataset Multi-Modal CelebA-HQ verify that UFC-BERT can synthesize high-fidelity images that comply with flexible multi-modal controls.
In this work, we construct the largest dataset for multimodal pretraining in Chinese, which consists of over 1.9TB images and 292GB texts that cover a wide range of domains. We propose a cross-modal pretraining method called M6, referring to Multi-Modality to Multi-Modality Multitask Mega-transformer, for unified pretraining on the data of single modality and multiple modalities. We scale the model size up to 10 billion and 100 billion parameters, and build the largest pretrained model in Chinese. We apply the model to a series of downstream applications, and demonstrate its outstanding performance in comparison with strong baselines. Furthermore, we specifically design a downstream task of text-guided image generation, and show that the finetuned M6 can create high-quality images with high resolution and abundant details.
In this paper, we propose the TBCNN-pair model to recognize entailment and contradiction between two sentences. In our model, a tree-based convolutional neural network (TBCNN) captures sentence-level semantics; then heuristic matching layers like concatenation, element-wise product/difference combine the information in individual sentences. Experimental results show that our model outperforms existing sentence encoding-based approaches by a large margin.