Score distillation has emerged as one of the most prevalent approaches for text-to-3D asset synthesis. Essentially, score distillation updates 3D parameters by lifting and back-propagating scores averaged over different views. In this paper, we reveal that the gradient estimation in score distillation is inherent to high variance. Through the lens of variance reduction, the effectiveness of SDS and VSD can be interpreted as applications of various control variates to the Monte Carlo estimator of the distilled score. Motivated by this rethinking and based on Stein's identity, we propose a more general solution to reduce variance for score distillation, termed Stein Score Distillation (SSD). SSD incorporates control variates constructed by Stein identity, allowing for arbitrary baseline functions. This enables us to include flexible guidance priors and network architectures to explicitly optimize for variance reduction. In our experiments, the overall pipeline, dubbed SteinDreamer, is implemented by instantiating the control variate with a monocular depth estimator. The results suggest that SSD can effectively reduce the distillation variance and consistently improve visual quality for both object- and scene-level generation. Moreover, we demonstrate that SteinDreamer achieves faster convergence than existing methods due to more stable gradient updates.
Despite the remarkable performance of score distillation in text-to-3D generation, such techniques notoriously suffer from view inconsistency issues, also known as "Janus" artifact, where the generated objects fake each view with multiple front faces. Although empirically effective methods have approached this problem via score debiasing or prompt engineering, a more rigorous perspective to explain and tackle this problem remains elusive. In this paper, we reveal that the existing score distillation-based text-to-3D generation frameworks degenerate to maximal likelihood seeking on each view independently and thus suffer from the mode collapse problem, manifesting as the Janus artifact in practice. To tame mode collapse, we improve score distillation by re-establishing in entropy term in the corresponding variational objective, which is applied to the distribution of rendered images. Maximizing the entropy encourages diversity among different views in generated 3D assets, thereby mitigating the Janus problem. Based on this new objective, we derive a new update rule for 3D score distillation, dubbed Entropic Score Distillation (ESD). We theoretically reveal that ESD can be simplified and implemented by just adopting the classifier-free guidance trick upon variational score distillation. Although embarrassingly straightforward, our extensive experiments successfully demonstrate that ESD can be an effective treatment for Janus artifacts in score distillation.
Segment Anything Model (SAM) is a foundation model for interactive segmentation, and it has catalyzed major advances in generative AI, computational photography, and medical imaging. This model takes in an arbitrary user input and provides segmentation masks of the corresponding objects. It is our goal to develop a version of SAM that is appropriate for use in a photography app. The original SAM model has a few challenges in this setting. First, original SAM a 600 million parameter based on ViT-H, and its high computational cost and large model size that are not suitable for todays mobile hardware. We address this by proposing the SqueezeSAM model architecture, which is 50x faster and 100x smaller than SAM. Next, when a user takes a photo on their phone, it might not occur to them to click on the image and get a mask. Our solution is to use salient object detection to generate the first few clicks. This produces an initial segmentation mask that the user can interactively edit. Finally, when a user clicks on an object, they typically expect all related pieces of the object to be segmented. For instance, if a user clicks on a person t-shirt in a photo, they expect the whole person to be segmented, but SAM typically segments just the t-shirt. We address this with a new data augmentation scheme, and the end result is that if the user clicks on a person holding a basketball, the person and the basketball are all segmented together.
Segment Anything Model (SAM) has emerged as a powerful tool for numerous vision applications. A key component that drives the impressive performance for zero-shot transfer and high versatility is a super large Transformer model trained on the extensive high-quality SA-1B dataset. While beneficial, the huge computation cost of SAM model has limited its applications to wider real-world applications. To address this limitation, we propose EfficientSAMs, light-weight SAM models that exhibits decent performance with largely reduced complexity. Our idea is based on leveraging masked image pretraining, SAMI, which learns to reconstruct features from SAM image encoder for effective visual representation learning. Further, we take SAMI-pretrained light-weight image encoders and mask decoder to build EfficientSAMs, and finetune the models on SA-1B for segment anything task. We perform evaluations on multiple vision tasks including image classification, object detection, instance segmentation, and semantic object detection, and find that our proposed pretraining method, SAMI, consistently outperforms other masked image pretraining methods. On segment anything task such as zero-shot instance segmentation, our EfficientSAMs with SAMI-pretrained lightweight image encoders perform favorably with a significant gain (e.g., ~4 AP on COCO/LVIS) over other fast SAM models.
Text-to-audio generation (TTA) produces audio from a text description, learning from pairs of audio samples and hand-annotated text. However, commercializing audio generation is challenging as user-input prompts are often under-specified when compared to text descriptions used to train TTA models. In this work, we treat TTA models as a ``blackbox'' and address the user prompt challenge with two key insights: (1) User prompts are generally under-specified, leading to a large alignment gap between user prompts and training prompts. (2) There is a distribution of audio descriptions for which TTA models are better at generating higher quality audio, which we refer to as ``audionese''. To this end, we rewrite prompts with instruction-tuned models and propose utilizing text-audio alignment as feedback signals via margin ranking learning for audio improvements. On both objective and subjective human evaluations, we observed marked improvements in both text-audio alignment and music audio quality.
Distributional shift is a central challenge in the deployment of machine learning models as they can be ill-equipped for real-world data. This is particularly evident in text-to-audio generation where the encoded representations are easily undermined by unseen prompts, which leads to the degradation of generated audio -- the limited set of the text-audio pairs remains inadequate for conditional audio generation in the wild as user prompts are under-specified. In particular, we observe a consistent audio quality degradation in generated audio samples with user prompts, as opposed to training set prompts. To this end, we present a retrieval-based in-context prompt editing framework that leverages the training captions as demonstrative exemplars to revisit the user prompts. We show that the framework enhanced the audio quality across the set of collected user prompts, which were edited with reference to the training captions as exemplars.
Large language models have shown their remarkable capabilities as a general interface for various language-related applications. Motivated by this, we target to build a unified interface for completing many vision-language tasks including image description, visual question answering, and visual grounding, among others. The challenge is to use a single model for performing diverse vision-language tasks effectively with simple multi-modal instructions. Towards this objective, we introduce MiniGPT-v2, a model that can be treated as a unified interface for better handling various vision-language tasks. We propose using unique identifiers for different tasks when training the model. These identifiers enable our model to better distinguish each task instruction effortlessly and also improve the model learning efficiency for each task. After the three-stage training, the experimental results show that MiniGPT-v2 achieves strong performance on many visual question-answering and visual grounding benchmarks compared to other vision-language generalist models. Our model and codes are available at https://minigpt-v2.github.io/
Transformer-based models excel in speech recognition. Existing efforts to optimize Transformer inference, typically for long-context applications, center on simplifying attention score calculations. However, streaming speech recognition models usually process a limited number of tokens each time, making attention score calculation less of a bottleneck. Instead, the bottleneck lies in the linear projection layers of multi-head attention and feedforward networks, constituting a substantial portion of the model size and contributing significantly to computation, memory, and power usage. To address this bottleneck, we propose folding attention, a technique targeting these linear layers, significantly reducing model size and improving memory and power efficiency. Experiments on on-device Transformer-based streaming speech recognition models show that folding attention reduces model size (and corresponding memory consumption) by up to 24% and power consumption by up to 23%, all without compromising model accuracy or computation overhead.
High-quality and intelligible speech is essential to text-to-speech (TTS) model training, however, obtaining high-quality data for low-resource languages is challenging and expensive. Applying speech enhancement on Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) corpus mitigates the issue by augmenting the training data, while how the nonlinear speech distortion brought by speech enhancement models affects TTS training still needs to be investigated. In this paper, we train a TF-GridNet speech enhancement model and apply it to low-resource datasets that were collected for the ASR task, then train a discrete unit based TTS model on the enhanced speech. We use Arabic datasets as an example and show that the proposed pipeline significantly improves the low-resource TTS system compared with other baseline methods in terms of ASR WER metric. We also run empirical analysis on the correlation between speech enhancement and TTS performances.