Segment Anything Model (SAM) has emerged as a powerful tool for numerous vision applications. A key component that drives the impressive performance for zero-shot transfer and high versatility is a super large Transformer model trained on the extensive high-quality SA-1B dataset. While beneficial, the huge computation cost of SAM model has limited its applications to wider real-world applications. To address this limitation, we propose EfficientSAMs, light-weight SAM models that exhibits decent performance with largely reduced complexity. Our idea is based on leveraging masked image pretraining, SAMI, which learns to reconstruct features from SAM image encoder for effective visual representation learning. Further, we take SAMI-pretrained light-weight image encoders and mask decoder to build EfficientSAMs, and finetune the models on SA-1B for segment anything task. We perform evaluations on multiple vision tasks including image classification, object detection, instance segmentation, and semantic object detection, and find that our proposed pretraining method, SAMI, consistently outperforms other masked image pretraining methods. On segment anything task such as zero-shot instance segmentation, our EfficientSAMs with SAMI-pretrained lightweight image encoders perform favorably with a significant gain (e.g., ~4 AP on COCO/LVIS) over other fast SAM models.
Large language models have shown their remarkable capabilities as a general interface for various language-related applications. Motivated by this, we target to build a unified interface for completing many vision-language tasks including image description, visual question answering, and visual grounding, among others. The challenge is to use a single model for performing diverse vision-language tasks effectively with simple multi-modal instructions. Towards this objective, we introduce MiniGPT-v2, a model that can be treated as a unified interface for better handling various vision-language tasks. We propose using unique identifiers for different tasks when training the model. These identifiers enable our model to better distinguish each task instruction effortlessly and also improve the model learning efficiency for each task. After the three-stage training, the experimental results show that MiniGPT-v2 achieves strong performance on many visual question-answering and visual grounding benchmarks compared to other vision-language generalist models. Our model and codes are available at https://minigpt-v2.github.io/
Weight-sharing supernet has become a vital component for performance estimation in the state-of-the-art (SOTA) neural architecture search (NAS) frameworks. Although supernet can directly generate different subnetworks without retraining, there is no guarantee for the quality of these subnetworks because of weight sharing. In NLP tasks such as machine translation and pre-trained language modeling, we observe that given the same model architecture, there is a large performance gap between supernet and training from scratch. Hence, supernet cannot be directly used and retraining is necessary after finding the optimal architectures. In this work, we propose mixture-of-supernets, a generalized supernet formulation where mixture-of-experts (MoE) is adopted to enhance the expressive power of the supernet model, with negligible training overhead. In this way, different subnetworks do not share the model weights directly, but through an architecture-based routing mechanism. As a result, model weights of different subnetworks are customized towards their specific architectures and the weight generation is learned by gradient descent. Compared to existing weight-sharing supernet for NLP, our method can minimize the retraining time, greatly improving training efficiency. In addition, the proposed method achieves the SOTA performance in NAS for building fast machine translation models, yielding better latency-BLEU tradeoff compared to HAT, state-of-the-art NAS for MT. We also achieve the SOTA performance in NAS for building memory-efficient task-agnostic BERT models, outperforming NAS-BERT and AutoDistil in various model sizes.
Transformers have shown superior performance on various computer vision tasks with their capabilities to capture long-range dependencies. Despite the success, it is challenging to directly apply Transformers on point clouds due to their quadratic cost in the number of points. In this paper, we present a Self-Positioning point-based Transformer (SPoTr), which is designed to capture both local and global shape contexts with reduced complexity. Specifically, this architecture consists of local self-attention and self-positioning point-based global cross-attention. The self-positioning points, adaptively located based on the input shape, consider both spatial and semantic information with disentangled attention to improve expressive power. With the self-positioning points, we propose a novel global cross-attention mechanism for point clouds, which improves the scalability of global self-attention by allowing the attention module to compute attention weights with only a small set of self-positioning points. Experiments show the effectiveness of SPoTr on three point cloud tasks such as shape classification, part segmentation, and scene segmentation. In particular, our proposed model achieves an accuracy gain of 2.6% over the previous best models on shape classification with ScanObjectNN. We also provide qualitative analyses to demonstrate the interpretability of self-positioning points. The code of SPoTr is available at https://github.com/mlvlab/SPoTr.
Fusing camera with LiDAR is a promising technique to improve the accuracy of 3D detection due to the complementary physical properties. While most existing methods focus on fusing camera features directly with raw LiDAR point clouds or shallow 3D features, it is observed that direct deep 3D feature fusion achieves inferior accuracy due to feature misalignment. The misalignment that originates from the feature aggregation across large receptive fields becomes increasingly severe for deep network stages. In this paper, we propose PathFusion to enable path-consistent LiDAR-camera deep feature fusion. PathFusion introduces a path consistency loss between shallow and deep features, which encourages the 2D backbone and its fusion path to transform 2D features in a way that is semantically aligned with the transform of the 3D backbone. We apply PathFusion to the prior-art fusion baseline, Focals Conv, and observe more than 1.2\% mAP improvements on the nuScenes test split consistently with and without testing-time augmentations. Moreover, PathFusion also improves KITTI AP3D (R11) by more than 0.6% on moderate level.
Diffusion models have emerged as a powerful tool for point cloud generation. A key component that drives the impressive performance for generating high-quality samples from noise is iteratively denoise for thousands of steps. While beneficial, the complexity of learning steps has limited its applications to many 3D real-world. To address this limitation, we propose Point Straight Flow (PSF), a model that exhibits impressive performance using one step. Our idea is based on the reformulation of the standard diffusion model, which optimizes the curvy learning trajectory into a straight path. Further, we develop a distillation strategy to shorten the straight path into one step without a performance loss, enabling applications to 3D real-world with latency constraints. We perform evaluations on multiple 3D tasks and find that our PSF performs comparably to the standard diffusion model, outperforming other efficient 3D point cloud generation methods. On real-world applications such as point cloud completion and training-free text-guided generation in a low-latency setup, PSF performs favorably.
Vision Transformers (ViTs) have shown impressive performance but still require a high computation cost as compared to convolutional neural networks (CNNs), due to the global similarity measurements and thus a quadratic complexity with the input tokens. Existing efficient ViTs adopt local attention (e.g., Swin) or linear attention (e.g., Performer), which sacrifice ViTs' capabilities of capturing either global or local context. In this work, we ask an important research question: Can ViTs learn both global and local context while being more efficient during inference? To this end, we propose a framework called Castling-ViT, which trains ViTs using both linear-angular attention and masked softmax-based quadratic attention, but then switches to having only linear angular attention during ViT inference. Our Castling-ViT leverages angular kernels to measure the similarities between queries and keys via spectral angles. And we further simplify it with two techniques: (1) a novel linear-angular attention mechanism: we decompose the angular kernels into linear terms and high-order residuals, and only keep the linear terms; and (2) we adopt two parameterized modules to approximate high-order residuals: a depthwise convolution and an auxiliary masked softmax attention to help learn both global and local information, where the masks for softmax attention are regularized to gradually become zeros and thus incur no overhead during ViT inference. Extensive experiments and ablation studies on three tasks consistently validate the effectiveness of the proposed Castling-ViT, e.g., achieving up to a 1.8% higher accuracy or 40% MACs reduction on ImageNet classification and 1.2 higher mAP on COCO detection under comparable FLOPs, as compared to ViTs with vanilla softmax-based attentions.
Data augmentation is key to improving the generalization ability of deep learning models. Mixup is a simple and widely-used data augmentation technique that has proven effective in alleviating the problems of overfitting and data scarcity. Also, recent studies of saliency-aware Mixup in the image domain show that preserving discriminative parts is beneficial to improving the generalization performance. However, these Mixup-based data augmentations are underexplored in 3D vision, especially in point clouds. In this paper, we propose SageMix, a saliency-guided Mixup for point clouds to preserve salient local structures. Specifically, we extract salient regions from two point clouds and smoothly combine them into one continuous shape. With a simple sequential sampling by re-weighted saliency scores, SageMix preserves the local structure of salient regions. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing Mixup methods in various benchmark point cloud datasets. With PointNet++, our method achieves an accuracy gain of 2.6% and 4.0% over standard training in 3D Warehouse dataset (MN40) and ScanObjectNN, respectively. In addition to generalization performance, SageMix improves robustness and uncertainty calibration. Moreover, when adopting our method to various tasks including part segmentation and standard 2D image classification, our method achieves competitive performance.
Transformer-based models are widely used in natural language processing (NLP). Central to the transformer model is the self-attention mechanism, which captures the interactions of token pairs in the input sequences and depends quadratically on the sequence length. Training such models on longer sequences is expensive. In this paper, we show that a Bernoulli sampling attention mechanism based on Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), decreases the quadratic complexity of such models to linear. We bypass the quadratic cost by considering self-attention as a sum of individual tokens associated with Bernoulli random variables that can, in principle, be sampled at once by a single hash (although in practice, this number may be a small constant). This leads to an efficient sampling scheme to estimate self-attention which relies on specific modifications of LSH (to enable deployment on GPU architectures). We evaluate our algorithm on the GLUE benchmark with standard 512 sequence length where we see favorable performance relative to a standard pretrained Transformer. On the Long Range Arena (LRA) benchmark, for evaluating performance on long sequences, our method achieves results consistent with softmax self-attention but with sizable speed-ups and memory savings and often outperforms other efficient self-attention methods. Our code is available at https://github.com/mlpen/YOSO