Large language models have shown their remarkable capabilities as a general interface for various language-related applications. Motivated by this, we target to build a unified interface for completing many vision-language tasks including image description, visual question answering, and visual grounding, among others. The challenge is to use a single model for performing diverse vision-language tasks effectively with simple multi-modal instructions. Towards this objective, we introduce MiniGPT-v2, a model that can be treated as a unified interface for better handling various vision-language tasks. We propose using unique identifiers for different tasks when training the model. These identifiers enable our model to better distinguish each task instruction effortlessly and also improve the model learning efficiency for each task. After the three-stage training, the experimental results show that MiniGPT-v2 achieves strong performance on many visual question-answering and visual grounding benchmarks compared to other vision-language generalist models. Our model and codes are available at https://minigpt-v2.github.io/
Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) models need to be optimized for specific hardware before they can be deployed on devices. This can be done by tuning the model's hyperparameters or exploring variations in its architecture. Re-training and re-validating models after making these changes can be a resource-intensive task. This paper presents TODM (Train Once Deploy Many), a new approach to efficiently train many sizes of hardware-friendly on-device ASR models with comparable GPU-hours to that of a single training job. TODM leverages insights from prior work on Supernet, where Recurrent Neural Network Transducer (RNN-T) models share weights within a Supernet. It reduces layer sizes and widths of the Supernet to obtain subnetworks, making them smaller models suitable for all hardware types. We introduce a novel combination of three techniques to improve the outcomes of the TODM Supernet: adaptive dropouts, an in-place Alpha-divergence knowledge distillation, and the use of ScaledAdam optimizer. We validate our approach by comparing Supernet-trained versus individually tuned Multi-Head State Space Model (MH-SSM) RNN-T using LibriSpeech. Results demonstrate that our TODM Supernet either matches or surpasses the performance of manually tuned models by up to a relative of 3% better in word error rate (WER), while efficiently keeping the cost of training many models at a small constant.
Weight-sharing supernet has become a vital component for performance estimation in the state-of-the-art (SOTA) neural architecture search (NAS) frameworks. Although supernet can directly generate different subnetworks without retraining, there is no guarantee for the quality of these subnetworks because of weight sharing. In NLP tasks such as machine translation and pre-trained language modeling, we observe that given the same model architecture, there is a large performance gap between supernet and training from scratch. Hence, supernet cannot be directly used and retraining is necessary after finding the optimal architectures. In this work, we propose mixture-of-supernets, a generalized supernet formulation where mixture-of-experts (MoE) is adopted to enhance the expressive power of the supernet model, with negligible training overhead. In this way, different subnetworks do not share the model weights directly, but through an architecture-based routing mechanism. As a result, model weights of different subnetworks are customized towards their specific architectures and the weight generation is learned by gradient descent. Compared to existing weight-sharing supernet for NLP, our method can minimize the retraining time, greatly improving training efficiency. In addition, the proposed method achieves the SOTA performance in NAS for building fast machine translation models, yielding better latency-BLEU tradeoff compared to HAT, state-of-the-art NAS for MT. We also achieve the SOTA performance in NAS for building memory-efficient task-agnostic BERT models, outperforming NAS-BERT and AutoDistil in various model sizes.
Ternary and binary neural networks enable multiplication-free computation and promise multiple orders of magnitude efficiency gains over full-precision networks if implemented on specialized hardware. However, since both the parameter and the output space are highly discretized, such networks have proven very difficult to optimize. The difficulties are compounded for the class of transformer text generation models due to the sensitivity of the attention operation to quantization and the noise-compounding effects of autoregressive decoding in the high-cardinality output space. We approach the problem with a mix of statistics-based quantization for the weights and elastic quantization of the activations and demonstrate the first ternary and binary transformer models on the downstream tasks of summarization and machine translation. Our ternary BART base achieves an R1 score of 41 on the CNN/DailyMail benchmark, which is merely 3.9 points behind the full model while being 16x more efficient. Our binary model, while less accurate, achieves a highly non-trivial score of 35.6. For machine translation, we achieved BLEU scores of 21.7 and 17.6 on the WMT16 En-Ro benchmark, compared with a full precision mBART model score of 26.8. We also compare our approach in the 8-bit activation setting, where our ternary and even binary weight models can match or outperform the best existing 8-bit weight models in the literature. Our code and models are available at: https://github.com/facebookresearch/Ternary_Binary_Transformer
Several post-training quantization methods have been applied to large language models (LLMs), and have been shown to perform well down to 8-bits. We find that these methods break down at lower bit precision, and investigate quantization aware training for LLMs (LLM-QAT) to push quantization levels even further. We propose a data-free distillation method that leverages generations produced by the pre-trained model, which better preserves the original output distribution and allows quantizing any generative model independent of its training data, similar to post-training quantization methods. In addition to quantizing weights and activations, we also quantize the KV cache, which is critical for increasing throughput and support long sequence dependencies at current model sizes. We experiment with LLaMA models of sizes 7B, 13B, and 30B, at quantization levels down to 4-bits. We observe large improvements over training-free methods, especially in the low-bit settings.
Fusing camera with LiDAR is a promising technique to improve the accuracy of 3D detection due to the complementary physical properties. While most existing methods focus on fusing camera features directly with raw LiDAR point clouds or shallow 3D features, it is observed that direct deep 3D feature fusion achieves inferior accuracy due to feature misalignment. The misalignment that originates from the feature aggregation across large receptive fields becomes increasingly severe for deep network stages. In this paper, we propose PathFusion to enable path-consistent LiDAR-camera deep feature fusion. PathFusion introduces a path consistency loss between shallow and deep features, which encourages the 2D backbone and its fusion path to transform 2D features in a way that is semantically aligned with the transform of the 3D backbone. We apply PathFusion to the prior-art fusion baseline, Focals Conv, and observe more than 1.2\% mAP improvements on the nuScenes test split consistently with and without testing-time augmentations. Moreover, PathFusion also improves KITTI AP3D (R11) by more than 0.6% on moderate level.
Diffusion models have emerged as a powerful tool for point cloud generation. A key component that drives the impressive performance for generating high-quality samples from noise is iteratively denoise for thousands of steps. While beneficial, the complexity of learning steps has limited its applications to many 3D real-world. To address this limitation, we propose Point Straight Flow (PSF), a model that exhibits impressive performance using one step. Our idea is based on the reformulation of the standard diffusion model, which optimizes the curvy learning trajectory into a straight path. Further, we develop a distillation strategy to shorten the straight path into one step without a performance loss, enabling applications to 3D real-world with latency constraints. We perform evaluations on multiple 3D tasks and find that our PSF performs comparably to the standard diffusion model, outperforming other efficient 3D point cloud generation methods. On real-world applications such as point cloud completion and training-free text-guided generation in a low-latency setup, PSF performs favorably.
This paper proposes a hardware-efficient architecture, Linearized Convolution Network (LiCo-Net) for keyword spotting. It is optimized specifically for low-power processor units like microcontrollers. ML operators exhibit heterogeneous efficiency profiles on power-efficient hardware. Given the exact theoretical computation cost, int8 operators are more computation-effective than float operators, and linear layers are often more efficient than other layers. The proposed LiCo-Net is a dual-phase system that uses the efficient int8 linear operators at the inference phase and applies streaming convolutions at the training phase to maintain a high model capacity. The experimental results show that LiCo-Net outperforms single-value decomposition filter (SVDF) on hardware efficiency with on-par detection performance. Compared to SVDF, LiCo-Net reduces cycles by 40% on HiFi4 DSP.
There is growing interest in unifying the streaming and full-context automatic speech recognition (ASR) networks into a single end-to-end ASR model to simplify the model training and deployment for both use cases. While in real-world ASR applications, the streaming ASR models typically operate under more storage and computational constraints - e.g., on embedded devices - than any server-side full-context models. Motivated by the recent progress in Omni-sparsity supernet training, where multiple subnetworks are jointly optimized in one single model, this work aims to jointly learn a compact sparse on-device streaming ASR model, and a large dense server non-streaming model, in a single supernet. Next, we present that, performing supernet training on both wav2vec 2.0 self-supervised learning and supervised ASR fine-tuning can not only substantially improve the large non-streaming model as shown in prior works, and also be able to improve the compact sparse streaming model.