Alignment in artificial intelligence pursues the consistency between model responses and human preferences as well as values. In practice, the multifaceted nature of human preferences inadvertently introduces what is known as the "alignment tax" -a compromise where enhancements in alignment within one objective (e.g.,harmlessness) can diminish performance in others (e.g.,helpfulness). However, existing alignment techniques are mostly unidirectional, leading to suboptimal trade-offs and poor flexibility over various objectives. To navigate this challenge, we argue the prominence of grounding LLMs with evident preferences. We introduce controllable preference optimization (CPO), which explicitly specifies preference scores for different objectives, thereby guiding the model to generate responses that meet the requirements. Our experimental analysis reveals that the aligned models can provide responses that match various preferences among the "3H" (helpfulness, honesty, harmlessness) desiderata. Furthermore, by introducing diverse data and alignment goals, we surpass baseline methods in aligning with single objectives, hence mitigating the impact of the alignment tax and achieving Pareto improvements in multi-objective alignment.
Open-source large language models (LLMs) have gained significant strength across diverse fields. Nevertheless, the majority of studies primarily concentrate on English, with only limited exploration into the realm of multilingual abilities. In this work, we therefore construct an open-source multilingual supervised fine-tuning dataset. Different from previous works that simply translate English instructions, we consider both the language-specific and language-agnostic abilities of LLMs. Firstly, we introduce a knowledge-grounded data augmentation approach to elicit more language-specific knowledge of LLMs, improving their ability to serve users from different countries. Moreover, we find modern LLMs possess strong cross-lingual transfer capabilities, thus repeatedly learning identical content in various languages is not necessary. Consequently, we can substantially prune the language-agnostic supervised fine-tuning (SFT) data without any performance degradation, making multilingual SFT more efficient. The resulting UltraLink dataset comprises approximately 1 million samples across five languages (i.e., En, Zh, Ru, Fr, Es), and the proposed data construction method can be easily extended to other languages. UltraLink-LM, which is trained on UltraLink, outperforms several representative baselines across many tasks.
Fine-tuning pre-trained large language models in a parameter-efficient manner is widely studied for its effectiveness and efficiency. The popular method of low-rank adaptation (LoRA) offers a notable approach, hypothesizing that the adaptation process is intrinsically low-dimensional. Although LoRA has demonstrated commendable performance, it is implemented with a fixed and unalterable intrinsic rank that might not always be the ideal choice. Recognizing the need for more flexible adaptation, we extend the methodology of LoRA to an innovative approach we call sparse low-rank adaptation (SoRA) that enables dynamic adjustments to the intrinsic rank during the adaptation process. We achieve this through the incorporation of a gate unit optimized with proximal gradient method in the training stage, controlling the cardinality of rank under the sparsity of the gate. In the subsequent inference stage, we eliminate the parameter blocks corresponding to the zeroed-out ranks, to reduce each SoRA module back to a concise yet rank-optimal LoRA. Our approach strengthens the representation power of LoRA by initializing it with a higher rank, while efficiently taming a temporarily increased number of parameters via updating in a sparse way. We further introduce a sparsifying scheduler for SoRA, aiming to examine the impact of the number of non-zero parameters on the model's memorization and generalization. Our experimental results demonstrate that SoRA can outperform other baselines even with 70% retained parameters and 70% training time.
This paper proposes INTERactiVE chaiN Of Repairing (INTERVENOR), which mimics human code repairing behavior (iteratively judging, rethinking, and repairing) and prompts the coding ability of regard Large Language Models (LLMs). Specifically, INTERVENOR employs two LLM based agents, Code Learner and Code Teacher, to play different roles in code repairing and work interactively to repair the generated codes. The Code Learner is asked to generate and repair code according to the instructions from the Code Teacher. The Code Teacher rethinks the code errors according to the corresponding feedback from compilers and iteratively generates the chain-of-repairing (CoR) to guide the code repairing process for Code Learner. Our experiments show that INTERVENOR outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and achieves about 13% and 4.5% improvements over the GPT-3.5 model in code generation and code translation tasks, respectively. Our further analyses show that CoR can illuminate the bug reasons and solution plans via natural language. Thanks to the feedback of code compilers, INTERVENOR can accurately identify the syntax errors and assertion errors in the code and provide precise instructions to repair codes, making LLMs achieve the plateau performance with only three repairing turns. All data and codes are available at https://github.com/NEUIR/INTERVENOR
Instruction tuning has recently been recognized as an effective way of aligning Large Language Models (LLMs) to enhance their generalization ability across various tasks. However, when tuning publicly accessible, centralized LLMs with private instruction data, privacy concerns are inevitable. While direct transfer of parameterized modules between models is a plausible approach to address this, its implications and effectiveness need further exploration. This paper focuses on Offsite-Tuning (OFT), a representative technique that transfers transformer blocks between centralized LLMs and downstream emulators. Given the limited understanding of the underlying mechanism of OFT, we perform an empirical analysis on LLMs from the perspectives of representation and functional similarity. Interestingly, our findings reveal a unique modular structure within the layers of LLMs that appears to emerge as the model size expands. Simultaneously, we note subtle but potentially significant changes in representation and intermediate predictions across the layers. Inspired by these observations, we propose CRaSh, involving Clustering, Removing, and Sharing, a training-free strategy to derive improved emulators from LLMs. CRaSh significantly boosts performance of OFT with billions of parameters. Furthermore, we investigate the optimal solutions yielded by fine-tuning with and without full model through the lens of loss landscape. Our findings demonstrate a linear connectivity among these optima falling over the same basin, thereby highlighting the effectiveness of CRaSh and OFT. The source code is publicly available at https://github.com/TsinghuaC3I/CRaSh.
The scientific scale-up of large language models (LLMs) necessitates a comprehensive understanding of their scaling properties. However, the existing literature on the scaling properties only yields an incomplete answer: optimization loss decreases predictably as the model size increases, in line with established scaling law; yet no scaling law for task has been established and the task performances are far from predictable during scaling. Task performances typically show minor gains on small models until they improve dramatically once models exceed a size threshold, exemplifying the ``emergent abilities''. In this study, we discover that small models, although they exhibit minor performance, demonstrate critical and consistent task performance improvements that are not captured by conventional evaluation strategies due to insufficient measurement resolution. To measure such improvements, we introduce PassUntil, an evaluation strategy through massive sampling in the decoding phase. We conduct quantitative investigations into the scaling law of task performance. Firstly, a strict task scaling law is identified, enhancing the predictability of task performances. Remarkably, we are able to predict the performance of the 2.4B model on code generation with merely 0.05\% deviation before training starts. Secondly, underpinned by PassUntil, we observe concrete evidence of emergent abilities and ascertain that they are not in conflict with the continuity of performance improvement. Their semblance to break-through is that their scaling curve cannot be fitted by standard scaling law function. We then introduce a mathematical definition for the emergent abilities. Through the definition, we refute a prevalent ``multi-step reasoning hypothesis'' regarding the genesis of emergent abilities and propose a new hypothesis with a satisfying fit to the observed scaling curve.
Reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) has become a pivot technique in aligning large language models (LLMs) with human preferences. In RLHF practice, preference data plays a crucial role in bridging human proclivity and LLMs. However, the scarcity of diverse, naturalistic datasets of human preferences on LLM outputs at scale poses a great challenge to RLHF as well as feedback learning research within the open-source community. Current preference datasets, either proprietary or limited in size and prompt variety, result in limited RLHF adoption in open-source models and hinder further exploration. In this study, we propose ULTRAFEEDBACK, a large-scale, high-quality, and diversified preference dataset designed to overcome these limitations and foster RLHF development. To create ULTRAFEEDBACK, we compile a diverse array of instructions and models from multiple sources to produce comparative data. We meticulously devise annotation instructions and employ GPT-4 to offer detailed feedback in both numerical and textual forms. ULTRAFEEDBACK establishes a reproducible and expandable preference data construction pipeline, serving as a solid foundation for future RLHF and feedback learning research. Utilizing ULTRAFEEDBACK, we train various models to demonstrate its effectiveness, including the reward model UltraRM, chat language model UltraLM-13B-PPO, and critique model UltraCM. Experimental results indicate that our models outperform existing open-source models, achieving top performance across multiple benchmarks. Our data and models are available at https://github.com/thunlp/UltraFeedback.
Object detection is a crucial component of autonomous driving, and many detection applications have been developed to address this task. These applications often rely on backbone architectures, which extract representation features from inputs to perform the object detection task. The quality of the features extracted by the backbone architecture can have a significant impact on the overall detection performance. Many researchers have focused on developing new and improved backbone architectures to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of object detection applications. While these backbone architectures have shown state-of-the-art performance on generic object detection datasets like MS-COCO and PASCAL-VOC, evaluating their performance under an autonomous driving environment has not been previously explored. To address this, our study evaluates three well-known autonomous vehicle datasets, namely KITTI, NuScenes, and BDD, to compare the performance of different backbone architectures on object detection tasks.
In recent research, slight performance improvement is observed from automatic speech recognition systems to audio-visual speech recognition systems in the end-to-end framework with low-quality videos. Unmatching convergence rates and specialized input representations between audio and visual modalities are considered to cause the problem. In this paper, we propose two novel techniques to improve audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR) under a pre-training and fine-tuning training framework. First, we explore the correlation between lip shapes and syllable-level subword units in Mandarin to establish good frame-level syllable boundaries from lip shapes. This enables accurate alignment of video and audio streams during visual model pre-training and cross-modal fusion. Next, we propose an audio-guided cross-modal fusion encoder (CMFE) neural network to utilize main training parameters for multiple cross-modal attention layers to make full use of modality complementarity. Experiments on the MISP2021-AVSR data set show the effectiveness of the two proposed techniques. Together, using only a relatively small amount of training data, the final system achieves better performances than state-of-the-art systems with more complex front-ends and back-ends.