Existing knowledge-enhanced methods have achieved remarkable results in certain QA tasks via obtaining diverse knowledge from different knowledge bases. However, limited by the properties of retrieved knowledge, they still have trouble benefiting from both the knowledge relevance and distinguishment simultaneously. To address the challenge, we propose CPACE, a Concept-centric Prompt-bAsed Contrastive Explanation Generation model, which aims to convert obtained symbolic knowledge into a contrastive explanation for better distinguishing the differences among given candidates. Firstly, following previous works, we retrieve different types of symbolic knowledge with a concept-centric knowledge extraction module. After that, we generate corresponding contrastive explanations using acquired symbolic knowledge and explanation prompts as guidance for better modeling the knowledge distinguishment and interpretability. Finally, we regard the generated contrastive explanation as external knowledge for downstream task enhancement. We conduct a series of experiments on three widely-used question-answering datasets: CSQA, QASC, and OBQA. Experimental results demonstrate that with the help of generated contrastive explanation, our CPACE model achieves new SOTA on CSQA (89.8% on the testing set, 0.9% higher than human performance), and gains impressive improvement on QASC and OBQA (4.2% and 3.5%, respectively).
Multimodal Knowledge Graph Construction (MMKC) refers to the process of creating a structured representation of entities and relationships through multiple modalities such as text, images, videos, etc. However, existing MMKC models have limitations in handling the introduction of new entities and relations due to the dynamic nature of the real world. Moreover, most state-of-the-art studies in MMKC only consider entity and relation extraction from text data while neglecting other multi-modal sources. Meanwhile, the current continual setting for knowledge graph construction only consider entity and relation extraction from text data while neglecting other multi-modal sources. Therefore, there arises the need to explore the challenge of continuous multimodal knowledge graph construction to address the phenomenon of catastrophic forgetting and ensure the retention of past knowledge extracted from different forms of data. This research focuses on investigating this complex topic by developing lifelong multimodal benchmark datasets. Based on the empirical findings that several state-of-the-art MMKC models, when trained on multimedia data, might unexpectedly underperform compared to those solely utilizing textual resources in a continual setting, we propose a Lifelong MultiModal Consistent Transformer Framework (LMC) for continuous multimodal knowledge graph construction. By combining the advantages of consistent KGC strategies within the context of continual learning, we achieve greater balance between stability and plasticity. Our experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our method over prevailing continual learning techniques or multimodal approaches in dynamic scenarios. Code and datasets can be found at https://github.com/zjunlp/ContinueMKGC.
The task of text-to-SQL parsing, which aims at converting natural language questions into executable SQL queries, has garnered increasing attention in recent years, as it can assist end users in efficiently extracting vital information from databases without the need for technical background. One of the major challenges in text-to-SQL parsing is domain generalization, i.e., how to generalize well to unseen databases. Recently, the pre-trained text-to-text transformer model, namely T5, though not specialized for text-to-SQL parsing, has achieved state-of-the-art performance on standard benchmarks targeting domain generalization. In this work, we explore ways to further augment the pre-trained T5 model with specialized components for text-to-SQL parsing. Such components are expected to introduce structural inductive bias into text-to-SQL parsers thus improving model's capacity on (potentially multi-hop) reasoning, which is critical for generating structure-rich SQLs. To this end, we propose a new architecture GRAPHIX-T5, a mixed model with the standard pre-trained transformer model augmented by some specially-designed graph-aware layers. Extensive experiments and analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of GRAPHIX-T5 across four text-to-SQL benchmarks: SPIDER, SYN, REALISTIC and DK. GRAPHIX-T5 surpass all other T5-based parsers with a significant margin, achieving new state-of-the-art performance. Notably, GRAPHIX-T5-large reach performance superior to the original T5-large by 5.7% on exact match (EM) accuracy and 6.6% on execution accuracy (EX). This even outperforms the T5-3B by 1.2% on EM and 1.5% on EX.
We present Pre-trained Machine Reader (PMR), a novel method to retrofit Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) into Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) models without acquiring labeled data. PMR is capable of resolving the discrepancy between model pre-training and downstream fine-tuning of existing PLMs, and provides a unified solver for tackling various extraction tasks. To achieve this, we construct a large volume of general-purpose and high-quality MRC-style training data with the help of Wikipedia hyperlinks and design a Wiki Anchor Extraction task to guide the MRC-style pre-training process. Although conceptually simple, PMR is particularly effective in solving extraction tasks including Extractive Question Answering and Named Entity Recognition, where it shows tremendous improvements over previous approaches especially under low-resource settings. Moreover, viewing sequence classification task as a special case of extraction task in our MRC formulation, PMR is even capable to extract high-quality rationales to explain the classification process, providing more explainability of the predictions.
Neural machine translation (NMT) is often criticized for failures that happen without awareness. The lack of competency awareness makes NMT untrustworthy. This is in sharp contrast to human translators who give feedback or conduct further investigations whenever they are in doubt about predictions. To fill this gap, we propose a novel competency-aware NMT by extending conventional NMT with a self-estimator, offering abilities to translate a source sentence and estimate its competency. The self-estimator encodes the information of the decoding procedure and then examines whether it can reconstruct the original semantics of the source sentence. Experimental results on four translation tasks demonstrate that the proposed method not only carries out translation tasks intact but also delivers outstanding performance on quality estimation. Without depending on any reference or annotated data typically required by state-of-the-art metric and quality estimation methods, our model yields an even higher correlation with human quality judgments than a variety of aforementioned methods, such as BLEURT, COMET, and BERTScore. Quantitative and qualitative analyses show better robustness of competency awareness in our model.
Relation extraction has the potential for large-scale knowledge graph construction, but current methods do not consider the qualifier attributes for each relation triplet, such as time, quantity or location. The qualifiers form hyper-relational facts which better capture the rich and complex knowledge graph structure. For example, the relation triplet (Leonard Parker, Educated At, Harvard University) can be factually enriched by including the qualifier (End Time, 1967). Hence, we propose the task of hyper-relational extraction to extract more specific and complete facts from text. To support the task, we construct HyperRED, a large-scale and general-purpose dataset. Existing models cannot perform hyper-relational extraction as it requires a model to consider the interaction between three entities. Hence, we propose CubeRE, a cube-filling model inspired by table-filling approaches and explicitly considers the interaction between relation triplets and qualifiers. To improve model scalability and reduce negative class imbalance, we further propose a cube-pruning method. Our experiments show that CubeRE outperforms strong baselines and reveal possible directions for future research. Our code and data are available at github.com/declare-lab/HyperRED.
Cross-lingual named entity recognition (NER) suffers from data scarcity in the target languages, especially under zero-shot settings. Existing translate-train or knowledge distillation methods attempt to bridge the language gap, but often introduce a high level of noise. To solve this problem, consistency training methods regularize the model to be robust towards perturbations on data or hidden states. However, such methods are likely to violate the consistency hypothesis, or mainly focus on coarse-grain consistency. We propose ConNER as a novel consistency training framework for cross-lingual NER, which comprises of: (1) translation-based consistency training on unlabeled target-language data, and (2) dropoutbased consistency training on labeled source-language data. ConNER effectively leverages unlabeled target-language data and alleviates overfitting on the source language to enhance the cross-lingual adaptability. Experimental results show our ConNER achieves consistent improvement over various baseline methods.
Due to the huge amount of parameters, fine-tuning of pretrained language models (PLMs) is prone to overfitting in the low resource scenarios. In this work, we present a novel method that operates on the hidden representations of a PLM to reduce overfitting. During fine-tuning, our method inserts random autoencoders between the hidden layers of a PLM, which transform activations from the previous layers into a multi-view compressed representation before feeding it into the upper layers. The autoencoders are plugged out after fine-tuning, so our method does not add extra parameters or increase computation cost during inference. Our method demonstrates promising performance improvement across a wide range of sequence- and token-level low-resource NLP tasks.
Out-of-Domain (OOD) intent detection is important for practical dialog systems. To alleviate the issue of lacking OOD training samples, some works propose synthesizing pseudo OOD samples and directly assigning one-hot OOD labels to these pseudo samples. However, these one-hot labels introduce noises to the training process because some hard pseudo OOD samples may coincide with In-Domain (IND) intents. In this paper, we propose an adaptive soft pseudo labeling (ASoul) method that can estimate soft labels for pseudo OOD samples when training OOD detectors. Semantic connections between pseudo OOD samples and IND intents are captured using an embedding graph. A co-training framework is further introduced to produce resulting soft labels following the smoothness assumption, i.e., close samples are likely to have similar labels. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that ASoul consistently improves the OOD detection performance and outperforms various competitive baselines.