Multi-agent debate systems are designed to derive accurate and consistent conclusions through adversarial interactions among agents. However, these systems often encounter challenges due to cognitive constraints, manifesting as (1) agents' obstinate adherence to incorrect viewpoints and (2) their propensity to abandon correct viewpoints. These issues are primarily responsible for the ineffectiveness of such debates. Addressing the challenge of cognitive constraints, we introduce a novel framework, the Multi-Agent Debate with Retrieval Augmented (MADRA). MADRA incorporates retrieval of prior knowledge into the debate process, effectively breaking cognitive constraints and enhancing the agents' reasoning capabilities. Furthermore, we have developed a self-selection module within this framework, enabling agents to autonomously select pertinent evidence, thereby minimizing the impact of irrelevant or noisy data. We have comprehensively tested and analyzed MADRA across six diverse datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach significantly enhances performance across various tasks, proving the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Understanding time is a pivotal aspect of human cognition, crucial in the broader framework of grasping the intricacies of the world. Previous studies typically focus on specific aspects of time, lacking a comprehensive temporal reasoning benchmark. To address this issue, we propose TimeBench, a comprehensive hierarchical temporal reasoning benchmark that covers a broad spectrum of temporal reasoning phenomena, which provides a thorough evaluation for investigating the temporal reasoning capabilities of large language models. We conduct extensive experiments on popular LLMs, such as GPT-4, LLaMA2, and Mistral, incorporating chain-of-thought prompting. Our experimental results indicate a significant performance gap between the state-of-the-art LLMs and humans, highlighting that there is still a considerable distance to cover in temporal reasoning. We aspire for TimeBench to serve as a comprehensive benchmark, fostering research in temporal reasoning for LLMs. Our resource is available at https://github.com/zchuz/TimeBench
Large language models (LLMs) exhibit superior performance on various natural language tasks, but they are susceptible to issues stemming from outdated data and domain-specific limitations. In order to address these challenges, researchers have pursued two primary strategies, knowledge editing and retrieval augmentation, to enhance LLMs by incorporating external information from different aspects. Nevertheless, there is still a notable absence of a comprehensive survey. In this paper, we propose a review to discuss the trends in integration of knowledge and large language models, including taxonomy of methods, benchmarks, and applications. In addition, we conduct an in-depth analysis of different methods and point out potential research directions in the future. We hope this survey offers the community quick access and a comprehensive overview of this research area, with the intention of inspiring future research endeavors.
The emergence of large language models (LLMs) has marked a significant breakthrough in natural language processing (NLP), leading to remarkable advancements in text understanding and generation. Nevertheless, alongside these strides, LLMs exhibit a critical tendency to produce hallucinations, resulting in content that is inconsistent with real-world facts or user inputs. This phenomenon poses substantial challenges to their practical deployment and raises concerns over the reliability of LLMs in real-world scenarios, which attracts increasing attention to detect and mitigate these hallucinations. In this survey, we aim to provide a thorough and in-depth overview of recent advances in the field of LLM hallucinations. We begin with an innovative taxonomy of LLM hallucinations, then delve into the factors contributing to hallucinations. Subsequently, we present a comprehensive overview of hallucination detection methods and benchmarks. Additionally, representative approaches designed to mitigate hallucinations are introduced accordingly. Finally, we analyze the challenges that highlight the current limitations and formulate open questions, aiming to delineate pathways for future research on hallucinations in LLMs.
The prevalence of mental disorders has become a significant issue, leading to the increased focus on Emotional Support Conversation as an effective supplement for mental health support. Existing methods have achieved compelling results, however, they still face three challenges: 1) variability of emotions, 2) practicality of the response, and 3) intricate strategy modeling. To address these challenges, we propose a novel knowledge-enhanced Memory mODEl for emotional suppoRt coNversation (MODERN). Specifically, we first devise a knowledge-enriched dialogue context encoding to perceive the dynamic emotion change of different periods of the conversation for coherent user state modeling and select context-related concepts from ConceptNet for practical response generation. Thereafter, we implement a novel memory-enhanced strategy modeling module to model the semantic patterns behind the strategy categories. Extensive experiments on a widely used large-scale dataset verify the superiority of our model over cutting-edge baselines.
Chain-of-thought reasoning, a cognitive process fundamental to human intelligence, has garnered significant attention in the realm of artificial intelligence and natural language processing. However, there still remains a lack of a comprehensive survey for this arena. To this end, we take the first step and present a thorough survey of this research field carefully and widely. We use X-of-Thought to refer to Chain-of-Thought in a broad sense. In detail, we systematically organize the current research according to the taxonomies of methods, including XoT construction, XoT structure variants, and enhanced XoT. Additionally, we describe XoT with frontier applications, covering planning, tool use, and distillation. Furthermore, we address challenges and discuss some future directions, including faithfulness, multi-modal, and theory. We hope this survey serves as a valuable resource for researchers seeking to innovate within the domain of chain-of-thought reasoning.
Commonsense reasoning is a pivotal skill for large language models, yet it presents persistent challenges in specific tasks requiring this competence. Traditional fine-tuning approaches can be resource-intensive and potentially compromise a model's generalization capacity. Furthermore, state-of-the-art language models like GPT-3.5 and Claude are primarily accessible through API calls, which makes fine-tuning models challenging. To address these challenges, we draw inspiration from the outputs of large models for tailored tasks and semi-automatically developed a set of novel prompts from several perspectives, including task-relevance, supportive evidence generation (e.g. chain-of-thought and knowledge), diverse path decoding to aid the model. Experimental results on ProtoQA dataset demonstrate that with better designed prompts we can achieve the new state-of-art(SOTA) on the ProtoQA leaderboard, improving the Max Answer@1 score by 8%, Max Incorrect@1 score by 4% (breakthrough 50% for the first time) compared to the previous SOTA model and achieved an improvement on StrategyQA and CommonsenseQA2.0 (3% and 1%, respectively). Furthermore, with the generated Chain-of-Thought and knowledge, we can improve the interpretability of the model while also surpassing the previous SOTA models. We hope that our work can provide insight for the NLP community to develop better prompts and explore the potential of large language models for more complex reasoning tasks.
To fully evaluate the overall performance of different NLP models in a given domain, many evaluation benchmarks are proposed, such as GLUE, SuperGLUE and CLUE. The fi eld of natural language understanding has traditionally focused on benchmarks for various tasks in languages such as Chinese, English, and multilingua, however, there has been a lack of attention given to the area of classical Chinese, also known as "wen yan wen", which has a rich history spanning thousands of years and holds signifi cant cultural and academic value. For the prosperity of the NLP community, in this paper, we introduce the WYWEB evaluation benchmark, which consists of nine NLP tasks in classical Chinese, implementing sentence classifi cation, sequence labeling, reading comprehension, and machine translation. We evaluate the existing pre-trained language models, which are all struggling with this benchmark. We also introduce a number of supplementary datasets and additional tools to help facilitate further progress on classical Chinese NLU. The github repository is https://github.com/baudzhou/WYWEB.
Existing knowledge-enhanced methods have achieved remarkable results in certain QA tasks via obtaining diverse knowledge from different knowledge bases. However, limited by the properties of retrieved knowledge, they still have trouble benefiting from both the knowledge relevance and distinguishment simultaneously. To address the challenge, we propose CPACE, a Concept-centric Prompt-bAsed Contrastive Explanation Generation model, which aims to convert obtained symbolic knowledge into a contrastive explanation for better distinguishing the differences among given candidates. Firstly, following previous works, we retrieve different types of symbolic knowledge with a concept-centric knowledge extraction module. After that, we generate corresponding contrastive explanations using acquired symbolic knowledge and explanation prompts as guidance for better modeling the knowledge distinguishment and interpretability. Finally, we regard the generated contrastive explanation as external knowledge for downstream task enhancement. We conduct a series of experiments on three widely-used question-answering datasets: CSQA, QASC, and OBQA. Experimental results demonstrate that with the help of generated contrastive explanation, our CPACE model achieves new SOTA on CSQA (89.8% on the testing set, 0.9% higher than human performance), and gains impressive improvement on QASC and OBQA (4.2% and 3.5%, respectively).
* Accepted to ACL2023(Findings). The Camera-ready Version