Recent advancements in large language models (LLMs) have shown potential for human-like agents. To help these agents adapt to new tasks without extensive human supervision, we propose the Learning through Communication (LTC) paradigm, a novel training approach enabling LLM agents to improve continuously through interactions with their environments and other agents. Recent advancements in large language models (LLMs) have shown potential for human-like agents. To help these agents adapt to new tasks without extensive human supervision, we propose the Learning through Communication (LTC) paradigm, a novel training approach enabling LLM agents to improve continuously through interactions with their environments and other agents. Through iterative exploration and PPO training, LTC empowers the agent to assimilate short-term experiences into long-term memory. To optimize agent interactions for task-specific learning, we introduce three structured communication patterns: Monologue, Dialogue, and Analogue-tailored for common tasks such as decision-making, knowledge-intensive reasoning, and numerical reasoning. We evaluated LTC on three datasets: ALFWorld (decision-making), HotpotQA (knowledge-intensive reasoning), and GSM8k (numerical reasoning). On ALFWorld, it exceeds the instruction tuning baseline by 12% in success rate. On HotpotQA, LTC surpasses the instruction-tuned LLaMA-7B agent by 5.1% in EM score, and it outperforms the instruction-tuned 9x larger PaLM-62B agent by 0.6%. On GSM8k, LTC outperforms the CoT-Tuning baseline by 3.6% in accuracy. The results showcase the versatility and efficiency of the LTC approach across diverse domains. We will open-source our code to promote further development of the community.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive performance in various NLP tasks, but they still suffer from challenges such as hallucination and weak numerical reasoning. To overcome these challenges, external tools can be used to enhance LLMs' question-answering abilities. However, current evaluation methods do not distinguish between questions that can be answered using LLMs' internal knowledge and those that require external information through tool use. To address this issue, we introduce a new dataset called ToolQA, which is designed to faithfully evaluate LLMs' ability to use external tools for question answering. Our development of ToolQA involved a scalable, automated process for dataset curation, along with 13 specialized tools designed for interaction with external knowledge in order to answer questions. Importantly, we strive to minimize the overlap between our benchmark data and LLMs' pre-training data, enabling a more precise evaluation of LLMs' tool-use reasoning abilities. We conducted an in-depth diagnosis of existing tool-use LLMs to highlight their strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements. Our findings set a new benchmark for evaluating LLMs and suggest new directions for future advancements. Our data and code are freely available to the broader scientific community on GitHub.
Pre-trained language models have achieved promising success in code retrieval tasks, where a natural language documentation query is given to find the most relevant existing code snippet. However, existing models focus only on optimizing the documentation code pairs by embedding them into latent space, without the association of external knowledge. In this paper, we propose a generation-augmented query expansion framework. Inspired by the human retrieval process - sketching an answer before searching, in this work, we utilize the powerful code generation model to benefit the code retrieval task. Specifically, we demonstrate that rather than merely retrieving the target code snippet according to the documentation query, it would be helpful to augment the documentation query with its generation counterpart - generated code snippets from the code generation model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt that leverages the code generation model to enhance the code retrieval task. We achieve new state-of-the-art results on the CodeSearchNet benchmark and surpass the baselines significantly.
Question Answering (QA) has been a long-standing research topic in AI and NLP fields, and a wealth of studies have been conducted to attempt to equip QA systems with human-level reasoning capability. To approximate the complicated human reasoning process, state-of-the-art QA systems commonly use pre-trained language models (LMs) to access knowledge encoded in LMs together with elaborately designed modules based on Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) to perform reasoning over knowledge graphs (KGs). However, many problems remain open regarding the reasoning functionality of these GNN-based modules. Can these GNN-based modules really perform a complex reasoning process? Are they under- or over-complicated for QA? To open the black box of GNN and investigate these problems, we dissect state-of-the-art GNN modules for QA and analyze their reasoning capability. We discover that even a very simple graph neural counter can outperform all the existing GNN modules on CommonsenseQA and OpenBookQA, two popular QA benchmark datasets which heavily rely on knowledge-aware reasoning. Our work reveals that existing knowledge-aware GNN modules may only carry out some simple reasoning such as counting. It remains a challenging open problem to build comprehensive reasoning modules for knowledge-powered QA.
The explosive growth in video streaming requires video understanding at high accuracy and low computation cost. Conventional 2D CNNs are computationally cheap but cannot capture temporal relationships; 3D CNN-based methods can achieve good performance but are computationally intensive. In this paper, we propose a generic and effective Temporal Shift Module (TSM) that enjoys both high efficiency and high performance. The key idea of TSM is to shift part of the channels along the temporal dimension, thus facilitate information exchanged among neighboring frames. It can be inserted into 2D CNNs to achieve temporal modeling at zero computation and zero parameters. TSM offers several unique advantages. Firstly, TSM has high performance; it ranks the first on the Something-Something leaderboard upon submission. Secondly, TSM has high efficiency; it achieves a high frame rate of 74fps and 29fps for online video recognition on Jetson Nano and Galaxy Note8. Thirdly, TSM has higher scalability compared to 3D networks, enabling large-scale Kinetics training on 1,536 GPUs in 15 minutes. Lastly, TSM enables action concepts learning, which 2D networks cannot model; we visualize the category attention map and find that spatial-temporal action detector emerges during the training of classification tasks. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/mit-han-lab/temporal-shift-module.
In multi-modal reasoning tasks, such as visual question answering (VQA), there have been many modeling and training paradigms tested. Previous models propose different methods for the vision and language tasks, but which ones perform the best while being sample and computationally efficient? Based on our experiments, we find that representing the text as probabilistic programs and images as object-level scene graphs best satisfy these desiderata. We extend existing models to leverage these soft programs and scene graphs to train on question answer pairs in an end-to-end manner. Empirical results demonstrate that this differentiable end-to-end program executor is able to maintain state-of-the-art accuracy while being sample and computationally efficient.
Model quantization is a widely used technique to compress and accelerate deep neural network (DNN) inference. Emergent DNN hardware accelerators begin to support mixed precision (1-8 bits) to further improve the computation efficiency, which raises a great challenge to find the optimal bitwidth for each layer: it requires domain experts to explore the vast design space trading off among accuracy, latency, energy, and model size, which is both time-consuming and sub-optimal. Conventional quantization algorithm ignores the different hardware architectures and quantizes all the layers in a uniform way. In this paper, we introduce the Hardware-Aware Automated Quantization (HAQ) framework which leverages the reinforcement learning to automatically determine the quantization policy, and we take the hardware accelerator's feedback in the design loop. Rather than relying on proxy signals such as FLOPs and model size, we employ a hardware simulator to generate direct feedback signals (latency and energy) to the RL agent. Compared with conventional methods, our framework is fully automated and can specialize the quantization policy for different neural network architectures and hardware architectures. Our framework effectively reduced the latency by 1.4-1.95x and the energy consumption by 1.9x with negligible loss of accuracy compared with the fixed bitwidth (8 bits) quantization. Our framework reveals that the optimal policies on different hardware architectures (i.e., edge and cloud architectures) under different resource constraints (i.e., latency, energy, and model size) are drastically different. We interpreted the implication of different quantization policies, which offer insights for both neural network architecture design and hardware architecture design.
We present APQ for efficient deep learning inference on resource-constrained hardware. Unlike previous methods that separately search the neural architecture, pruning policy, and quantization policy, we optimize them in a joint manner. To deal with the larger design space it brings, a promising approach is to train a quantization-aware accuracy predictor to quickly get the accuracy of the quantized model and feed it to the search engine to select the best fit. However, training this quantization-aware accuracy predictor requires collecting a large number of quantized <model, accuracy> pairs, which involves quantization-aware finetuning and thus is highly time-consuming. To tackle this challenge, we propose to transfer the knowledge from a full-precision (i.e., fp32) accuracy predictor to the quantization-aware (i.e., int8) accuracy predictor, which greatly improves the sample efficiency. Besides, collecting the dataset for the fp32 accuracy predictor only requires to evaluate neural networks without any training cost by sampling from a pretrained once-for-all network, which is highly efficient. Extensive experiments on ImageNet demonstrate the benefits of our joint optimization approach. With the same accuracy, APQ reduces the latency/energy by 2x/1.3x over MobileNetV2+HAQ. Compared to the separate optimization approach (ProxylessNAS+AMC+HAQ), APQ achieves 2.3% higher ImageNet accuracy while reducing orders of magnitude GPU hours and CO2 emission, pushing the frontier for green AI that is environmental-friendly. The code and video are publicly available.
Automatic transistor sizing is a challenging problem in circuit design due to the large design space, complex performance trade-offs, and fast technological advancements. Although there has been plenty of work on transistor sizing targeting on one circuit, limited research has been done on transferring the knowledge from one circuit to another to reduce the re-design overhead. In this paper, we present GCN-RL Circuit Designer, leveraging reinforcement learning (RL) to transfer the knowledge between different technology nodes and topologies. Moreover, inspired by the simple fact that circuit is a graph, we learn on the circuit topology representation with graph convolutional neural networks (GCN). The GCN-RL agent extracts features of the topology graph whose vertices are transistors, edges are wires. Our learning-based optimization consistently achieves the highest Figures of Merit (FoM) on four different circuits compared with conventional black-box optimization methods (Bayesian Optimization, Evolutionary Algorithms), random search, and human expert designs. Experiments on transfer learning between five technology nodes and two circuit topologies demonstrate that RL with transfer learning can achieve much higher FoMs than methods without knowledge transfer. Our transferable optimization method makes transistor sizing and design porting more effective and efficient.
Efficient deep learning computing requires algorithm and hardware co-design to enable specialization: we usually need to change the algorithm to reduce memory footprint and improve energy efficiency. However, the extra degree of freedom from the algorithm makes the design space much larger: it's not only about designing the hardware but also about how to tweak the algorithm to best fit the hardware. Human engineers can hardly exhaust the design space by heuristics. It's labor consuming and sub-optimal. We propose design automation techniques for efficient neural networks. We investigate automatically designing specialized fast models, auto channel pruning, and auto mixed-precision quantization. We demonstrate such learning-based, automated design achieves superior performance and efficiency than rule-based human design. Moreover, we shorten the design cycle by 200x than previous work, so that we can afford to design specialized neural network models for different hardware platforms.