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Song Han

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Transformer-QEC: Quantum Error Correction Code Decoding with Transferable Transformers

Nov 27, 2023
Hanrui Wang, Pengyu Liu, Kevin Shao, Dantong Li, Jiaqi Gu, David Z. Pan, Yongshan Ding, Song Han

Quantum computing has the potential to solve problems that are intractable for classical systems, yet the high error rates in contemporary quantum devices often exceed tolerable limits for useful algorithm execution. Quantum Error Correction (QEC) mitigates this by employing redundancy, distributing quantum information across multiple data qubits and utilizing syndrome qubits to monitor their states for errors. The syndromes are subsequently interpreted by a decoding algorithm to identify and correct errors in the data qubits. This task is complex due to the multiplicity of error sources affecting both data and syndrome qubits as well as syndrome extraction operations. Additionally, identical syndromes can emanate from different error sources, necessitating a decoding algorithm that evaluates syndromes collectively. Although machine learning (ML) decoders such as multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been proposed, they often focus on local syndrome regions and require retraining when adjusting for different code distances. We introduce a transformer-based QEC decoder which employs self-attention to achieve a global receptive field across all input syndromes. It incorporates a mixed loss training approach, combining both local physical error and global parity label losses. Moreover, the transformer architecture's inherent adaptability to variable-length inputs allows for efficient transfer learning, enabling the decoder to adapt to varying code distances without retraining. Evaluation on six code distances and ten different error configurations demonstrates that our model consistently outperforms non-ML decoders, such as Union Find (UF) and Minimum Weight Perfect Matching (MWPM), and other ML decoders, thereby achieving best logical error rates. Moreover, the transfer learning can save over 10x of training cost.

* Accepted to ICCAD 2023, FAST ML for Science Workshop; 7 pages, 8 figures 
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DGR: Tackling Drifted and Correlated Noise in Quantum Error Correction via Decoding Graph Re-weighting

Nov 27, 2023
Hanrui Wang, Pengyu Liu, Yilian Liu, Jiaqi Gu, Jonathan Baker, Frederic T. Chong, Song Han

Quantum hardware suffers from high error rates and noise, which makes directly running applications on them ineffective. Quantum Error Correction (QEC) is a critical technique towards fault tolerance which encodes the quantum information distributively in multiple data qubits and uses syndrome qubits to check parity. Minimum-Weight-Perfect-Matching (MWPM) is a popular QEC decoder that takes the syndromes as input and finds the matchings between syndromes that infer the errors. However, there are two paramount challenges for MWPM decoders. First, as noise in real quantum systems can drift over time, there is a potential misalignment with the decoding graph's initial weights, leading to a severe performance degradation in the logical error rates. Second, while the MWPM decoder addresses independent errors, it falls short when encountering correlated errors typical on real hardware, such as those in the 2Q depolarizing channel. We propose DGR, an efficient decoding graph edge re-weighting strategy with no quantum overhead. It leverages the insight that the statistics of matchings across decoding iterations offer rich information about errors on real quantum hardware. By counting the occurrences of edges and edge pairs in decoded matchings, we can statistically estimate the up-to-date probabilities of each edge and the correlations between them. The reweighting process includes two vital steps: alignment re-weighting and correlation re-weighting. The former updates the MWPM weights based on statistics to align with actual noise, and the latter adjusts the weight considering edge correlations. Extensive evaluations on surface code and honeycomb code under various settings show that DGR reduces the logical error rate by 3.6x on average-case noise mismatch with exceeding 5000x improvement under worst-case mismatch.

* 13 pages, 19 figures 
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RobustState: Boosting Fidelity of Quantum State Preparation via Noise-Aware Variational Training

Nov 27, 2023
Hanrui Wang, Yilian Liu, Pengyu Liu, Jiaqi Gu, Zirui Li, Zhiding Liang, Jinglei Cheng, Yongshan Ding, Xuehai Qian, Yiyu Shi, David Z. Pan, Frederic T. Chong, Song Han

Quantum state preparation, a crucial subroutine in quantum computing, involves generating a target quantum state from initialized qubits. Arbitrary state preparation algorithms can be broadly categorized into arithmetic decomposition (AD) and variational quantum state preparation (VQSP). AD employs a predefined procedure to decompose the target state into a series of gates, whereas VQSP iteratively tunes ansatz parameters to approximate target state. VQSP is particularly apt for Noisy-Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ) machines due to its shorter circuits. However, achieving noise-robust parameter optimization still remains challenging. We present RobustState, a novel VQSP training methodology that combines high robustness with high training efficiency. The core idea involves utilizing measurement outcomes from real machines to perform back-propagation through classical simulators, thus incorporating real quantum noise into gradient calculations. RobustState serves as a versatile, plug-and-play technique applicable for training parameters from scratch or fine-tuning existing parameters to enhance fidelity on target machines. It is adaptable to various ansatzes at both gate and pulse levels and can even benefit other variational algorithms, such as variational unitary synthesis. Comprehensive evaluation of RobustState on state preparation tasks for 4 distinct quantum algorithms using 10 real quantum machines demonstrates a coherent error reduction of up to 7.1 $\times$ and state fidelity improvement of up to 96\% and 81\% for 4-Q and 5-Q states, respectively. On average, RobustState improves fidelity by 50\% and 72\% for 4-Q and 5-Q states compared to baseline approaches.

* Accepted to FASTML @ ICCAD 2023. 14 pages, 20 figures 
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Machine learning's own Industrial Revolution

Nov 04, 2023
Yuan Luo, Song Han, Jingjing Liu

Machine learning is expected to enable the next Industrial Revolution. However, lacking standardized and automated assembly networks, ML faces significant challenges to meet ever-growing enterprise demands and empower broad industries. In the Perspective, we argue that ML needs to first complete its own Industrial Revolution, elaborate on how to best achieve its goals, and discuss new opportunities to enable rapid translation from ML's innovation frontier to mass production and utilization.

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PockEngine: Sparse and Efficient Fine-tuning in a Pocket

Oct 26, 2023
Ligeng Zhu, Lanxiang Hu, Ji Lin, Wei-Chen Wang, Wei-Ming Chen, Chuang Gan, Song Han

On-device learning and efficient fine-tuning enable continuous and privacy-preserving customization (e.g., locally fine-tuning large language models on personalized data). However, existing training frameworks are designed for cloud servers with powerful accelerators (e.g., GPUs, TPUs) and lack the optimizations for learning on the edge, which faces challenges of resource limitations and edge hardware diversity. We introduce PockEngine: a tiny, sparse and efficient engine to enable fine-tuning on various edge devices. PockEngine supports sparse backpropagation: it prunes the backward graph and sparsely updates the model with measured memory saving and latency reduction while maintaining the model quality. Secondly, PockEngine is compilation first: the entire training graph (including forward, backward and optimization steps) is derived at compile-time, which reduces the runtime overhead and brings opportunities for graph transformations. PockEngine also integrates a rich set of training graph optimizations, thus can further accelerate the training cost, including operator reordering and backend switching. PockEngine supports diverse applications, frontends and hardware backends: it flexibly compiles and tunes models defined in PyTorch/TensorFlow/Jax and deploys binaries to mobile CPU/GPU/DSPs. We evaluated PockEngine on both vision models and large language models. PockEngine achieves up to 15 $\times$ speedup over off-the-shelf TensorFlow (Raspberry Pi), 5.6 $\times$ memory saving back-propagation (Jetson AGX Orin). Remarkably, PockEngine enables fine-tuning LLaMav2-7B on NVIDIA Jetson AGX Orin at 550 tokens/s, 7.9$\times$ faster than the PyTorch.

* 56th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO 2023)  
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Efficient Streaming Language Models with Attention Sinks

Sep 29, 2023
Guangxuan Xiao, Yuandong Tian, Beidi Chen, Song Han, Mike Lewis

Deploying Large Language Models (LLMs) in streaming applications such as multi-round dialogue, where long interactions are expected, is urgently needed but poses two major challenges. Firstly, during the decoding stage, caching previous tokens' Key and Value states (KV) consumes extensive memory. Secondly, popular LLMs cannot generalize to longer texts than the training sequence length. Window attention, where only the most recent KVs are cached, is a natural approach -- but we show that it fails when the text length surpasses the cache size. We observe an interesting phenomenon, namely attention sink, that keeping the KV of initial tokens will largely recover the performance of window attention. In this paper, we first demonstrate that the emergence of attention sink is due to the strong attention scores towards initial tokens as a ``sink'' even if they are not semantically important. Based on the above analysis, we introduce StreamingLLM, an efficient framework that enables LLMs trained with a finite length attention window to generalize to infinite sequence lengths without any fine-tuning. We show that StreamingLLM can enable Llama-2, MPT, Falcon, and Pythia to perform stable and efficient language modeling with up to 4 million tokens and more. In addition, we discover that adding a placeholder token as a dedicated attention sink during pre-training can further improve streaming deployment. In streaming settings, StreamingLLM outperforms the sliding window recomputation baseline by up to 22.2x speedup. Code and datasets are provided at

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LongLoRA: Efficient Fine-tuning of Long-Context Large Language Models

Sep 21, 2023
Yukang Chen, Shengju Qian, Haotian Tang, Xin Lai, Zhijian Liu, Song Han, Jiaya Jia

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We present LongLoRA, an efficient fine-tuning approach that extends the context sizes of pre-trained large language models (LLMs), with limited computation cost. Typically, training LLMs with long context sizes is computationally expensive, requiring extensive training hours and GPU resources. For example, training on the context length of 8192 needs 16x computational costs in self-attention layers as that of 2048. In this paper, we speed up the context extension of LLMs in two aspects. On the one hand, although dense global attention is needed during inference, fine-tuning the model can be effectively and efficiently done by sparse local attention. The proposed shift short attention effectively enables context extension, leading to non-trivial computation saving with similar performance to fine-tuning with vanilla attention. Particularly, it can be implemented with only two lines of code in training, while being optional in inference. On the other hand, we revisit the parameter-efficient fine-tuning regime for context expansion. Notably, we find that LoRA for context extension works well under the premise of trainable embedding and normalization. LongLoRA demonstrates strong empirical results on various tasks on LLaMA2 models from 7B/13B to 70B. LongLoRA adopts LLaMA2 7B from 4k context to 100k, or LLaMA2 70B to 32k on a single 8x A100 machine. LongLoRA extends models' context while retaining their original architectures, and is compatible with most existing techniques, like FlashAttention-2. In addition, to make LongLoRA practical, we collect a dataset, LongQA, for supervised fine-tuning. It contains more than 3k long context question-answer pairs.

* Code, models, dataset, and demo are available at 
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AWQ: Activation-aware Weight Quantization for LLM Compression and Acceleration

Jun 01, 2023
Ji Lin, Jiaming Tang, Haotian Tang, Shang Yang, Xingyu Dang, Song Han

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Large language models (LLMs) have shown excellent performance on various tasks, but the astronomical model size raises the hardware barrier for serving (memory size) and slows down token generation (memory bandwidth). In this paper, we propose Activation-aware Weight Quantization (AWQ), a hardware-friendly approach for LLM low-bit weight-only quantization. Our method is based on the observation that weights are not equally important: protecting only 1% of salient weights can greatly reduce quantization error. We then propose to search for the optimal per-channel scaling that protects the salient weights by observing the activation, not weights. AWQ does not rely on any backpropagation or reconstruction, so it can well preserve LLMs' generalization ability on different domains and modalities, without overfitting to the calibration set; it also does not rely on any data layout reordering, maintaining the hardware efficiency. AWQ outperforms existing work on various language modeling, common sense QA, and domain-specific benchmarks. Thanks to better generalization, it achieves excellent quantization performance for instruction-tuned LMs and, for the first time, multi-modal LMs. We also implement efficient tensor core kernels with reorder-free online dequantization to accelerate AWQ, achieving a 1.45x speedup over GPTQ and is 1.85x faster than the cuBLAS FP16 implementation. Our method provides a turn-key solution to compress LLMs to 3/4 bits for efficient deployment.

* Code available at: 
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FastComposer: Tuning-Free Multi-Subject Image Generation with Localized Attention

May 21, 2023
Guangxuan Xiao, Tianwei Yin, William T. Freeman, Frédo Durand, Song Han

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Diffusion models excel at text-to-image generation, especially in subject-driven generation for personalized images. However, existing methods are inefficient due to the subject-specific fine-tuning, which is computationally intensive and hampers efficient deployment. Moreover, existing methods struggle with multi-subject generation as they often blend features among subjects. We present FastComposer which enables efficient, personalized, multi-subject text-to-image generation without fine-tuning. FastComposer uses subject embeddings extracted by an image encoder to augment the generic text conditioning in diffusion models, enabling personalized image generation based on subject images and textual instructions with only forward passes. To address the identity blending problem in the multi-subject generation, FastComposer proposes cross-attention localization supervision during training, enforcing the attention of reference subjects localized to the correct regions in the target images. Naively conditioning on subject embeddings results in subject overfitting. FastComposer proposes delayed subject conditioning in the denoising step to maintain both identity and editability in subject-driven image generation. FastComposer generates images of multiple unseen individuals with different styles, actions, and contexts. It achieves 300$\times$-2500$\times$ speedup compared to fine-tuning-based methods and requires zero extra storage for new subjects. FastComposer paves the way for efficient, personalized, and high-quality multi-subject image creation. Code, model, and dataset are available at

* The first two authors contributed equally to this work 
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SparseViT: Revisiting Activation Sparsity for Efficient High-Resolution Vision Transformer

Mar 30, 2023
Xuanyao Chen, Zhijian Liu, Haotian Tang, Li Yi, Hang Zhao, Song Han

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High-resolution images enable neural networks to learn richer visual representations. However, this improved performance comes at the cost of growing computational complexity, hindering their usage in latency-sensitive applications. As not all pixels are equal, skipping computations for less-important regions offers a simple and effective measure to reduce the computation. This, however, is hard to be translated into actual speedup for CNNs since it breaks the regularity of the dense convolution workload. In this paper, we introduce SparseViT that revisits activation sparsity for recent window-based vision transformers (ViTs). As window attentions are naturally batched over blocks, actual speedup with window activation pruning becomes possible: i.e., ~50% latency reduction with 60% sparsity. Different layers should be assigned with different pruning ratios due to their diverse sensitivities and computational costs. We introduce sparsity-aware adaptation and apply the evolutionary search to efficiently find the optimal layerwise sparsity configuration within the vast search space. SparseViT achieves speedups of 1.5x, 1.4x, and 1.3x compared to its dense counterpart in monocular 3D object detection, 2D instance segmentation, and 2D semantic segmentation, respectively, with negligible to no loss of accuracy.

* CVPR 2023. The first two authors contributed equally to this work. Project page: 
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