Video quality assessment (VQA) has attracted growing attention in recent years. While the great expense of annotating large-scale VQA datasets has become the main obstacle for current deep-learning methods. To surmount the constraint of insufficient training data, in this paper, we first consider the complete range of video distribution diversity (\ie content, distortion, motion) and employ diverse pretrained models (\eg architecture, pretext task, pre-training dataset) to benefit quality representation. An Adaptive Diverse Quality-aware feature Acquisition (Ada-DQA) framework is proposed to capture desired quality-related features generated by these frozen pretrained models. By leveraging the Quality-aware Acquisition Module (QAM), the framework is able to extract more essential and relevant features to represent quality. Finally, the learned quality representation is utilized as supplementary supervisory information, along with the supervision of the labeled quality score, to guide the training of a relatively lightweight VQA model in a knowledge distillation manner, which largely reduces the computational cost during inference. Experimental results on three mainstream no-reference VQA benchmarks clearly show the superior performance of Ada-DQA in comparison with current state-of-the-art approaches without using extra training data of VQA.
Neuroevolution has greatly promoted Deep Neural Network (DNN) architecture design and its applications, while there is a lack of methods available across different DNN types concerning both their scale and performance. In this study, we propose a self-adaptive neuroevolution (SANE) approach to automatically construct various lightweight DNN architectures for different tasks. One of the key settings in SANE is the search space defined by cells and organs self-adapted to different DNN types. Based on this search space, a constructive evolution strategy with uniform evolution settings and operations is designed to grow DNN architectures gradually. SANE is able to self-adaptively adjust evolution exploration and exploitation to improve search efficiency. Moreover, a speciation scheme is developed to protect evolution from early convergence by restricting selection competition within species. To evaluate SANE, we carry out neuroevolution experiments to generate different DNN architectures including convolutional neural network, generative adversarial network and long short-term memory. The results illustrate that the obtained DNN architectures could have smaller scale with similar performance compared to existing DNN architectures. Our proposed SANE provides an efficient approach to self-adaptively search DNN architectures across different types.
Radiation encephalopathy (REP) is the most common complication for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) radiotherapy. It is highly desirable to assist clinicians in optimizing the NPC radiotherapy regimen to reduce radiotherapy-induced temporal lobe injury (RTLI) according to the probability of REP onset. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first exploration of predicting radiotherapy-induced REP by jointly exploiting image and non-image data in NPC radiotherapy regimen. We cast REP prediction as a survival analysis task and evaluate the predictive accuracy in terms of the concordance index (CI). We design a deep multimodal survival network (MSN) with two feature extractors to learn discriminative features from multimodal data. One feature extractor imposes feature selection on non-image data, and the other learns visual features from images. Because the priorly balanced CI (BCI) loss function directly maximizing the CI is sensitive to uneven sampling per batch. Hence, we propose a novel weighted CI (WCI) loss function to leverage all REP samples effectively by assigning their different weights with a dual average operation. We further introduce a temperature hyper-parameter for our WCI to sharpen the risk difference of sample pairs to help model convergence. We extensively evaluate our WCI on a private dataset to demonstrate its favourability against its counterparts. The experimental results also show multimodal data of NPC radiotherapy can bring more gains for REP risk prediction.
In the management of lung nodules, we are desirable to predict nodule evolution in terms of its diameter variation on Computed Tomography (CT) scans and then provide a follow-up recommendation according to the predicted result of the growing trend of the nodule. In order to improve the performance of growth trend prediction for lung nodules, it is vital to compare the changes of the same nodule in consecutive CT scans. Motivated by this, we screened out 4,666 subjects with more than two consecutive CT scans from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) dataset to organize a temporal dataset called NLSTt. In specific, we first detect and pair regions of interest (ROIs) covering the same nodule based on registered CT scans. After that, we predict the texture category and diameter size of the nodules through models. Last, we annotate the evolution class of each nodule according to its changes in diameter. Based on the built NLSTt dataset, we propose a siamese encoder to simultaneously exploit the discriminative features of 3D ROIs detected from consecutive CT scans. Then we novelly design a spatial-temporal mixer (STM) to leverage the interval changes of the same nodule in sequential 3D ROIs and capture spatial dependencies of nodule regions and the current 3D ROI. According to the clinical diagnosis routine, we employ hierarchical loss to pay more attention to growing nodules. The extensive experiments on our organized dataset demonstrate the advantage of our proposed method. We also conduct experiments on an in-house dataset to evaluate the clinical utility of our method by comparing it against skilled clinicians.
In this paper with the aid of genetic algorithm and fuzzy theory, we present a hybrid job scheduling approach, which considers the load balancing of the system and reduces total execution time and execution cost. We try to modify the standard Genetic algorithm and to reduce the iteration of creating population with the aid of fuzzy theory. The main goal of this research is to assign the jobs to the resources with considering the VM MIPS and length of jobs. The new algorithm assigns the jobs to the resources with considering the job length and resources capacities. We evaluate the performance of our approach with some famous cloud scheduling models. The results of the experiments show the efficiency of the proposed approach in term of execution time, execution cost and average Degree of Imbalance (DI).