Neural networks (NNs) playing the role of controllers have demonstrated impressive empirical performances on challenging control problems. However, the potential adoption of NN controllers in real-life applications also gives rise to a growing concern over the safety of these neural-network controlled systems (NNCSs), especially when used in safety-critical applications. In this work, we present POLAR-Express, an efficient and precise formal reachability analysis tool for verifying the safety of NNCSs. POLAR-Express uses Taylor model arithmetic to propagate Taylor models (TMs) across a neural network layer-by-layer to compute an overapproximation of the neural-network function. It can be applied to analyze any feed-forward neural network with continuous activation functions. We also present a novel approach to propagate TMs more efficiently and precisely across ReLU activation functions. In addition, POLAR-Express provides parallel computation support for the layer-by-layer propagation of TMs, thus significantly improving the efficiency and scalability over its earlier prototype POLAR. Across the comparison with six other state-of-the-art tools on a diverse set of benchmarks, POLAR-Express achieves the best verification efficiency and tightness in the reachable set analysis.
Recent progress on parse tree encoder for sentence representation learning is notable. However, these works mainly encode tree structures recursively, which is not conducive to parallelization. On the other hand, these works rarely take into account the labels of arcs in dependency trees. To address both issues, we propose Dependency-Transformer, which applies a relation-attention mechanism that works in concert with the self-attention mechanism. This mechanism aims to encode the dependency and the spatial positional relations between nodes in the dependency tree of sentences. By a score-based method, we successfully inject the syntax information without affecting Transformer's parallelizability. Our model outperforms or is comparable to the state-of-the-art methods on four tasks for sentence representation and has obvious advantages in computational efficiency.
Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) achieve great success in non-Euclidean structure data processing recently. In existing studies, deeper layers are used in CCNs to extract deeper features of Euclidean structure data. However, for non-Euclidean structure data, too deep GCNs will confront with problems like "neighbor explosion" and "over-smoothing", it also cannot be applied to large datasets. To address these problems, we propose a model called PathSAGE, which can learn high-order topological information and improve the model's performance by expanding the receptive field. The model randomly samples paths starting from the central node and aggregates them by Transformer encoder. PathSAGE has only one layer of structure to aggregate nodes which avoid those problems above. The results of evaluation shows that our model achieves comparable performance with the state-of-the-art models in inductive learning tasks.
Building robust and general dialogue models for spoken conversations is challenging due to the gap in distributions of spoken and written data. This paper presents our approach to build generalized models for the Knowledge-grounded Task-oriented Dialogue Modeling on Spoken Conversations Challenge of DSTC-10. In order to mitigate the discrepancies between spoken and written text, we mainly employ extensive data augmentation strategies on written data, including artificial error injection and round-trip text-speech transformation. To train robust models for spoken conversations, we improve pre-trained language models, and apply ensemble algorithms for each sub-task. Typically, for the detection task, we fine-tune \roberta and ELECTRA, and run an error-fixing ensemble algorithm. For the selection task, we adopt a two-stage framework that consists of entity tracking and knowledge ranking, and propose a multi-task learning method to learn multi-level semantic information by domain classification and entity selection. For the generation task, we adopt a cross-validation data process to improve pre-trained generative language models, followed by a consensus decoding algorithm, which can add arbitrary features like relative \rouge metric, and tune associated feature weights toward \bleu directly. Our approach ranks third on the objective evaluation and second on the final official human evaluation.
In online advertising, the Internet users may be exposed to a sequence of different ad campaigns, i.e., display ads, search, or referrals from multiple channels, before led up to any final sales conversion and transaction. For both campaigners and publishers, it is fundamentally critical to estimate the contribution from ad campaign touch-points during the customer journey (conversion funnel) and assign the right credit to the right ad exposure accordingly. However, the existing research on the multi-touch attribution problem lacks a principled way of utilizing the users' pre-conversion actions (i.e., clicks), and quite often fails to model the sequential patterns among the touch points from a user's behavior data. To make it worse, the current industry practice is merely employing a set of arbitrary rules as the attribution model, e.g., the popular last-touch model assigns 100% credit to the final touch-point regardless of actual attributions. In this paper, we propose a Dual-attention Recurrent Neural Network (DARNN) for the multi-touch attribution problem. It learns the attribution values through an attention mechanism directly from the conversion estimation objective. To achieve this, we utilize sequence-to-sequence prediction for user clicks, and combine both post-view and post-click attribution patterns together for the final conversion estimation. To quantitatively benchmark attribution models, we also propose a novel yet practical attribution evaluation scheme through the proxy of budget allocation (under the estimated attributions) over ad channels. The experimental results on two real datasets demonstrate the significant performance gains of our attribution model against the state of the art.
It is difficult to train a personalized task-oriented dialogue system because the data collected from each individual is often insufficient. Personalized dialogue systems trained on a small dataset can overfit and make it difficult to adapt to different user needs. One way to solve this problem is to consider a collection of multiple users' data as a source domain and an individual user's data as a target domain, and to perform a transfer learning from the source to the target domain. By following this idea, we propose "PETAL"(PErsonalized Task-oriented diALogue), a transfer-learning framework based on POMDP to learn a personalized dialogue system. The system first learns common dialogue knowledge from the source domain and then adapts this knowledge to the target user. This framework can avoid the negative transfer problem by considering differences between source and target users. The policy in the personalized POMDP can learn to choose different actions appropriately for different users. Experimental results on a real-world coffee-shopping data and simulation data show that our personalized dialogue system can choose different optimal actions for different users, and thus effectively improve the dialogue quality under the personalized setting.
The ability to open a door is essential for robots to perform home-serving and rescuing tasks. A substantial problem is to obtain the necessary parameters such as the width of the door and the length of the handle. Many researchers utilize computer vision techniques to extract the parameters automatically which lead to fine but not very stable results because of the complexity of the environment. We propose a method that utilizes an RGBD sensor and a GUI for users to 'point' at the target region with a mouse to acquire 3D information. Algorithms that can extract important parameters from the selected points are designed. To avoid large internal force induced by the misalignment of the robot orientation and the normal of the door plane, we design a module that can compute the normal of the plane by pointing at three non-collinear points and then drive the robot to the desired orientation. We carried out experiments on real robot. The result shows that the designed GUI and algorithms can help find the necessary parameters stably and get the robot prepared for further operations.