In text documents such as news articles, the content and key events usually revolve around a subset of all the entities mentioned in a document. These entities, often deemed as salient entities, provide useful cues of the aboutness of a document to a reader. Identifying the salience of entities was found helpful in several downstream applications such as search, ranking, and entity-centric summarization, among others. Prior work on salient entity detection mainly focused on machine learning models that require heavy feature engineering. We show that fine-tuning medium-sized language models with a cross-encoder style architecture yields substantial performance gains over feature engineering approaches. To this end, we conduct a comprehensive benchmarking of four publicly available datasets using models representative of the medium-sized pre-trained language model family. Additionally, we show that zero-shot prompting of instruction-tuned language models yields inferior results, indicating the task's uniqueness and complexity.
The goal of sequential recommendation (SR) is to predict a user's potential interested items based on her/his historical interaction sequences. Most existing sequential recommenders are developed based on ID features, which, despite their widespread use, often underperform with sparse IDs and struggle with the cold-start problem. Besides, inconsistent ID mappings hinder the model's transferability, isolating similar recommendation domains that could have been co-optimized. This paper aims to address these issues by exploring the potential of multi-modal information in learning robust and generalizable sequence representations. We propose MISSRec, a multi-modal pre-training and transfer learning framework for SR. On the user side, we design a Transformer-based encoder-decoder model, where the contextual encoder learns to capture the sequence-level multi-modal synergy while a novel interest-aware decoder is developed to grasp item-modality-interest relations for better sequence representation. On the candidate item side, we adopt a dynamic fusion module to produce user-adaptive item representation, providing more precise matching between users and items. We pre-train the model with contrastive learning objectives and fine-tune it in an efficient manner. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of MISSRec, promising an practical solution for real-world recommendation scenarios.
Entity Linking (EL) is a fundamental task for Information Extraction and Knowledge Graphs. The general form of EL (i.e., end-to-end EL) aims to first find mentions in the given input document and then link the mentions to corresponding entities in a specific knowledge base. Recently, the paradigm of retriever-reader promotes the progress of end-to-end EL, benefiting from the advantages of dense entity retrieval and machine reading comprehension. However, the existing study only trains the retriever and the reader separately in a pipeline manner, which ignores the benefit that the interaction between the retriever and the reader can bring to the task. To advance the retriever-reader paradigm to perform more perfectly on end-to-end EL, we propose BEER$^2$, a Bidirectional End-to-End training framework for Retriever and Reader. Through our designed bidirectional end-to-end training, BEER$^2$ guides the retriever and the reader to learn from each other, make progress together, and ultimately improve EL performance. Extensive experiments on benchmarks of multiple domains demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed BEER$^2$.
Hashing is very popular for remote sensing image search. This article proposes a multiview hashing with learnable parameters to retrieve the queried images for a large-scale remote sensing dataset. Existing methods always neglect that real-world remote sensing data lies on a low-dimensional manifold embedded in high-dimensional ambient space. Unlike previous methods, this article proposes to learn the consensus compact codes in a view-specific low-dimensional subspace. Furthermore, we have added a hyperparameter learnable module to avoid complex parameter tuning. In order to prove the effectiveness of our method, we carried out experiments on three widely used remote sensing data sets and compared them with seven state-of-the-art methods. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared to the other method.
Technology companies building consumer-facing platforms may have access to massive-scale user population. In recent years, promotion with quantifiable incentive has become a popular approach for increasing active users on such platforms. On one hand, increased user activities can introduce network effect, bring in advertisement audience, and produce other benefits. On the other hand, massive-scale promotion causes massive cost. Therefore making promotion campaigns efficient in terms of return-on-investment (ROI) is of great interest to many companies. This paper proposes a practical two-stage framework that can optimize the ROI of various massive-scale promotion campaigns. In the first stage, users' personal promotion-response curves are modeled by machine learning techniques. In the second stage, business objectives and resource constraints are formulated into an optimization problem, the decision variables of which are how much incentive to give to each user. In order to do effective optimization in the second stage, counterfactual prediction and noise-reduction are essential for the first stage. We leverage existing counterfactual prediction techniques to correct treatment bias in data. We also introduce a novel deep neural network (DNN) architecture, the deep-isotonic-promotion-network (DIPN), to reduce noise in the promotion response curves. The DIPN architecture incorporates our prior knowledge of response curve shape, by enforcing isotonicity and smoothness. It out-performed regular DNN and other state-of-the-art shape-constrained models in our experiments.
While most network embedding techniques model the relative positions of nodes in a network, recently there has been significant interest in structural embeddings that model node role equivalences, irrespective of their distances to any specific nodes. We present PhUSION, a proximity-based unified framework for computing structural and positional node embeddings, which leverages well-established methods for calculating node proximity scores. Clarifying a point of contention in the literature, we show which step of PhUSION produces the different kinds of embeddings and what steps can be used by both. Moreover, by aggregating the PhUSION node embeddings, we obtain graph-level features that model information lost by previous graph feature learning and kernel methods. In a comprehensive empirical study with over 10 datasets, 4 tasks, and 35 methods, we systematically reveal successful design choices for node and graph-level machine learning with embeddings.
While the state-of-the-art performance on entity resolution (ER) has been achieved by deep learning, its effectiveness depends on large quantities of accurately labeled training data. To alleviate the data labeling burden, Active Learning (AL) presents itself as a feasible solution that focuses on data deemed useful for model training. Building upon the recent advances in risk analysis for ER, which can provide a more refined estimate on label misprediction risk than the simpler classifier outputs, we propose a novel AL approach of risk sampling for ER. Risk sampling leverages misprediction risk estimation for active instance selection. Based on the core-set characterization for AL, we theoretically derive an optimization model which aims to minimize core-set loss with non-uniform Lipschitz continuity. Since the defined weighted K-medoids problem is NP-hard, we then present an efficient heuristic algorithm. Finally, we empirically verify the efficacy of the proposed approach on real data by a comparative study. Our extensive experiments have shown that it outperforms the existing alternatives by considerable margins. Using ER as a test case, we demonstrate that risk sampling is a promising approach potentially applicable to other challenging classification tasks.
Despite the significant progress of deep reinforcement learning (RL) in solving sequential decision making problems, RL agents often overfit to training environments and struggle to adapt to new, unseen environments. This prevents robust applications of RL in real world situations, where system dynamics may deviate wildly from the training settings. In this work, our primary contribution is to propose an information theoretic regularization objective and an annealing-based optimization method to achieve better generalization ability in RL agents. We demonstrate the extreme generalization benefits of our approach in different domains ranging from maze navigation to robotic tasks; for the first time, we show that agents can generalize to test parameters more than 10 standard deviations away from the training parameter distribution. This work provides a principled way to improve generalization in RL by gradually removing information that is redundant for task-solving; it opens doors for the systematic study of generalization from training to extremely different testing settings, focusing on the established connections between information theory and machine learning.
While recent progress in deep reinforcement learning has enabled robots to learn complex behaviors, tasks with long horizons and sparse rewards remain an ongoing challenge. In this work, we propose an effective reward shaping method through predictive coding to tackle sparse reward problems. By learning predictive representations offline and using these representations for reward shaping, we gain access to reward signals that understand the structure and dynamics of the environment. In particular, our method achieves better learning by providing reward signals that 1) understand environment dynamics 2) emphasize on features most useful for learning 3) resist noise in learned representations through reward accumulation. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach in different domains ranging from robotic manipulation to navigation, and we show that reward signals produced through predictive coding are as effective for learning as hand-crafted rewards.