Sequential recommendation aims to predict the subsequent items matching user preference based on her/his historical interactions. With the development of Large Language Models (LLMs), there is growing interest in exploring the potential of LLMs for sequential recommendation by framing it as a language modeling task. Prior works represent items in the textual prompts using either ID indexing or text indexing and feed the prompts into LLMs, but falling short of either encapsulating comprehensive world knowledge or exhibiting sufficient sequential understanding. To harness the complementary strengths of traditional recommenders (which encode user behavioral knowledge) and LLMs (which possess world knowledge about items), we propose LLaRA -- a Large Language and Recommendation Assistant framework. Specifically, LLaRA represents items in LLM's input prompts using a novel hybrid approach that integrates ID-based item embeddings from traditional recommenders with textual item features. Viewing the ``sequential behavior of the user'' as a new modality in recommendation, we employ an adapter to bridge the modality gap between ID embeddings of the traditional recommenders and the input space of LLMs. Furthermore, instead of directly exposing the hybrid prompt to LLMs, we apply a curriculum learning approach to gradually ramp up training complexity. We first warm up the LLM with text-only prompting, which aligns more naturally with the LLM's language modeling capabilities. Thereafter, we progressively transition to hybrid prompting, training the adapter to incorporate behavioral knowledge from the traditional sequential recommender into the LLM. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficacy of LLaRA framework. Our code and data are available at https://github.com/ljy0ustc/LLaRA .
Sequential recommendation is to predict the next item of interest for a user, based on her/his interaction history with previous items. In conventional sequential recommenders, a common approach is to model item sequences using discrete IDs, learning representations that encode sequential behaviors and reflect user preferences. Inspired by recent success in empowering large language models (LLMs) to understand and reason over diverse modality data (e.g., image, audio, 3D points), a compelling research question arises: ``Can LLMs understand and work with hidden representations from ID-based sequential recommenders?''.To answer this, we propose a simple framework, RecInterpreter, which examines the capacity of open-source LLMs to decipher the representation space of sequential recommenders. Specifically, with the multimodal pairs (\ie representations of interaction sequence and text narrations), RecInterpreter first uses a lightweight adapter to map the representations into the token embedding space of the LLM. Subsequently, it constructs a sequence-recovery prompt that encourages the LLM to generate textual descriptions for items within the interaction sequence. Taking a step further, we propose a sequence-residual prompt instead, which guides the LLM in identifying the residual item by contrasting the representations before and after integrating this residual into the existing sequence. Empirical results showcase that our RecInterpreter enhances the exemplar LLM, LLaMA, to understand hidden representations from ID-based sequential recommenders, especially when guided by our sequence-residual prompts. Furthermore, RecInterpreter enables LLaMA to instantiate the oracle items generated by generative recommenders like DreamRec, concreting the item a user would ideally like to interact with next. Codes are available at https://github.com/YangZhengyi98/RecInterpreter.
Sequential recommendation aims to recommend the next item that matches a user's interest, based on the sequence of items he/she interacted with before. Scrutinizing previous studies, we can summarize a common learning-to-classify paradigm -- given a positive item, a recommender model performs negative sampling to add negative items and learns to classify whether the user prefers them or not, based on his/her historical interaction sequence. Although effective, we reveal two inherent limitations:(1) it may differ from human behavior in that a user could imagine an oracle item in mind and select potential items matching the oracle; and (2) the classification is limited in the candidate pool with noisy or easy supervision from negative samples, which dilutes the preference signals towards the oracle item. Yet, generating the oracle item from the historical interaction sequence is mostly unexplored. To bridge the gap, we reshape sequential recommendation as a learning-to-generate paradigm, which is achieved via a guided diffusion model, termed DreamRec.Specifically, for a sequence of historical items, it applies a Transformer encoder to create guidance representations. Noising target items explores the underlying distribution of item space; then, with the guidance of historical interactions, the denoising process generates an oracle item to recover the positive item, so as to cast off negative sampling and depict the true preference of the user directly. We evaluate the effectiveness of DreamRec through extensive experiments and comparisons with existing methods. Codes and data are open-sourced at https://github.com/YangZhengyi98/DreamRec.
Reinforcement learning (RL) has been widely applied in recommendation systems due to its potential in optimizing the long-term engagement of users. From the perspective of RL, recommendation can be formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP), where recommendation system (agent) can interact with users (environment) and acquire feedback (reward signals).However, it is impractical to conduct online interactions with the concern on user experience and implementation complexity, and we can only train RL recommenders with offline datasets containing limited reward signals and state transitions. Therefore, the data sparsity issue of reward signals and state transitions is very severe, while it has long been overlooked by existing RL recommenders.Worse still, RL methods learn through the trial-and-error mode, but negative feedback cannot be obtained in implicit feedback recommendation tasks, which aggravates the overestimation problem of offline RL recommender. To address these challenges, we propose a novel RL recommender named model-enhanced contrastive reinforcement learning (MCRL). On the one hand, we learn a value function to estimate the long-term engagement of users, together with a conservative value learning mechanism to alleviate the overestimation problem.On the other hand, we construct some positive and negative state-action pairs to model the reward function and state transition function with contrastive learning to exploit the internal structure information of MDP. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing offline RL and self-supervised RL methods with different representative backbone networks on two real-world datasets.
As the focus on Large Language Models (LLMs) in the field of recommendation intensifies, the optimization of LLMs for recommendation purposes (referred to as LLM4Rec) assumes a crucial role in augmenting their effectiveness in providing recommendations. However, existing approaches for LLM4Rec often assess performance using restricted sets of candidates, which may not accurately reflect the models' overall ranking capabilities. In this paper, our objective is to investigate the comprehensive ranking capacity of LLMs and propose a two-step grounding framework known as BIGRec (Bi-step Grounding Paradigm for Recommendation). It initially grounds LLMs to the recommendation space by fine-tuning them to generate meaningful tokens for items and subsequently identifies appropriate actual items that correspond to the generated tokens. By conducting extensive experiments on two datasets, we substantiate the superior performance, capacity for handling few-shot scenarios, and versatility across multiple domains exhibited by BIGRec. Furthermore, we observe that the marginal benefits derived from increasing the quantity of training samples are modest for BIGRec, implying that LLMs possess the limited capability to assimilate statistical information, such as popularity and collaborative filtering, due to their robust semantic priors. These findings also underline the efficacy of integrating diverse statistical information into the LLM4Rec framework, thereby pointing towards a potential avenue for future research. Our code and data are available at https://github.com/SAI990323/Grounding4Rec.
In recent years, advances in neuroscience and artificial intelligence have paved the way for unprecedented opportunities for understanding the complexity of the brain and its emulation by computational systems. Cutting-edge advancements in neuroscience research have revealed the intricate relationship between brain structure and function, while the success of artificial neural networks highlights the importance of network architecture. Now is the time to bring them together to better unravel how intelligence emerges from the brain's multiscale repositories. In this review, we propose the Digital Twin Brain (DTB) as a transformative platform that bridges the gap between biological and artificial intelligence. It consists of three core elements: the brain structure that is fundamental to the twinning process, bottom-layer models to generate brain functions, and its wide spectrum of applications. Crucially, brain atlases provide a vital constraint, preserving the brain's network organization within the DTB. Furthermore, we highlight open questions that invite joint efforts from interdisciplinary fields and emphasize the far-reaching implications of the DTB. The DTB can offer unprecedented insights into the emergence of intelligence and neurological disorders, which holds tremendous promise for advancing our understanding of both biological and artificial intelligence, and ultimately propelling the development of artificial general intelligence and facilitating precision mental healthcare.