Following language instructions to navigate in unseen environments is a challenging task for autonomous embodied agents. With strong representation capabilities, pretrained vision-and-language models are widely used in VLN. However, most of them are trained on web-crawled general-purpose datasets, which incurs a considerable domain gap when used for VLN tasks. To address the problem, we propose a novel and model-agnostic domain-aware prompt learning (DAP) framework. For equipping the pretrained models with specific object-level and scene-level cross-modal alignment in VLN tasks, DAP applies a low-cost prompt tuning paradigm to learn soft visual prompts for extracting in-domain image semantics. Specifically, we first generate a set of in-domain image-text pairs with the help of the CLIP model. Then we introduce soft visual prompts in the input space of the visual encoder in a pretrained model. DAP injects in-domain visual knowledge into the visual encoder of the pretrained model in an efficient way. Experimental results on both R2R and REVERIE show the superiority of DAP compared to existing state-of-the-art methods.
Recent advances in vision-language pre-trained models (VLPs) have significantly increased visual understanding and cross-modal analysis capabilities. Companies have emerged to provide multi-modal Embedding as a Service (EaaS) based on VLPs (e.g., CLIP-based VLPs), which cost a large amount of training data and resources for high-performance service. However, existing studies indicate that EaaS is vulnerable to model extraction attacks that induce great loss for the owners of VLPs. Protecting the intellectual property and commercial ownership of VLPs is increasingly crucial yet challenging. A major solution of watermarking model for EaaS implants a backdoor in the model by inserting verifiable trigger embeddings into texts, but it is only applicable for large language models and is unrealistic due to data and model privacy. In this paper, we propose a safe and robust backdoor-based embedding watermarking method for VLPs called VLPMarker. VLPMarker utilizes embedding orthogonal transformation to effectively inject triggers into the VLPs without interfering with the model parameters, which achieves high-quality copyright verification and minimal impact on model performance. To enhance the watermark robustness, we further propose a collaborative copyright verification strategy based on both backdoor trigger and embedding distribution, enhancing resilience against various attacks. We increase the watermark practicality via an out-of-distribution trigger selection approach, removing access to the model training data and thus making it possible for many real-world scenarios. Our extensive experiments on various datasets indicate that the proposed watermarking approach is effective and safe for verifying the copyright of VLPs for multi-modal EaaS and robust against model extraction attacks. Our code is available at https://github.com/Pter61/vlpmarker.
Named Entity Recognition (NER) remains challenging due to the complex entities, like nested, overlapping, and discontinuous entities. Existing approaches, such as sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) generation and span-based classification, have shown impressive performance on various NER subtasks, but they are difficult to scale to datasets with longer input text because of either exposure bias issue or inefficient computation. In this paper, we propose a novel Sequence-to-Forest generation paradigm, S2F-NER, which can directly extract entities in sentence via a Forest decoder that decode multiple entities in parallel rather than sequentially. Specifically, our model generate each path of each tree in forest autoregressively, where the maximum depth of each tree is three (which is the shortest feasible length for complex NER and is far smaller than the decoding length of Seq2Seq). Based on this novel paradigm, our model can elegantly mitigates the exposure bias problem and keep the simplicity of Seq2Seq. Experimental results show that our model significantly outperforms the baselines on three discontinuous NER datasets and on two nested NER datasets, especially for discontinuous entity recognition.
Expressing universal semantics common to all languages is helpful in understanding the meanings of complex and culture-specific sentences. The research theme underlying this scenario focuses on learning universal representations across languages with the usage of massive parallel corpora. However, due to the sparsity and scarcity of parallel data, there is still a big challenge in learning authentic ``universals'' for any two languages. In this paper, we propose EMMA-X: an EM-like Multilingual pre-training Algorithm, to learn (X)Cross-lingual universals with the aid of excessive multilingual non-parallel data. EMMA-X unifies the cross-lingual representation learning task and an extra semantic relation prediction task within an EM framework. Both the extra semantic classifier and the cross-lingual sentence encoder approximate the semantic relation of two sentences, and supervise each other until convergence. To evaluate EMMA-X, we conduct experiments on XRETE, a newly introduced benchmark containing 12 widely studied cross-lingual tasks that fully depend on sentence-level representations. Results reveal that EMMA-X achieves state-of-the-art performance. Further geometric analysis of the built representation space with three requirements demonstrates the superiority of EMMA-X over advanced models.
Estimating tissue parameter maps with high accuracy and precision from highly undersampled measurements presents one of the major challenges in MR fingerprinting (MRF). Many existing works project the recovered voxel fingerprints onto the Bloch manifold to improve reconstruction performance. However, little research focuses on exploiting the latent manifold structure priors among fingerprints. To fill this gap, we propose a novel MRF reconstruction framework based on manifold structured data priors. Since it is difficult to directly estimate the fingerprint manifold structure, we model the tissue parameters as points on a low-dimensional parameter manifold. We reveal that the fingerprint manifold shares the same intrinsic topology as the parameter manifold, although being embedded in different Euclidean spaces. To exploit the non-linear and non-local redundancies in MRF data, we divide the MRF data into spatial patches, and the similarity measurement among data patches can be accurately obtained using the Euclidean distance between the corresponding patches in the parameter manifold. The measured similarity is then used to construct the graph Laplacian operator, which represents the fingerprint manifold structure. Thus, the fingerprint manifold structure is introduced in the reconstruction framework by using the low-dimensional parameter manifold. Additionally, we incorporate the locally low-rank prior in the reconstruction framework to further utilize the local correlations within each patch for improved reconstruction performance. We also adopt a GPU-accelerated NUFFT library to accelerate reconstruction in non-Cartesian sampling scenarios. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve significantly improved reconstruction performance with reduced computational time over the state-of-the-art methods.
Collaborative perception can substantially boost each agent's perception ability by facilitating communication among multiple agents. However, temporal asynchrony among agents is inevitable in the real world due to communication delays, interruptions, and clock misalignments. This issue causes information mismatch during multi-agent fusion, seriously shaking the foundation of collaboration. To address this issue, we propose CoBEVFlow, an asynchrony-robust collaborative perception system based on bird's eye view (BEV) flow. The key intuition of CoBEVFlow is to compensate motions to align asynchronous collaboration messages sent by multiple agents. To model the motion in a scene, we propose BEV flow, which is a collection of the motion vector corresponding to each spatial location. Based on BEV flow, asynchronous perceptual features can be reassigned to appropriate positions, mitigating the impact of asynchrony. CoBEVFlow has two advantages: (i) CoBEVFlow can handle asynchronous collaboration messages sent at irregular, continuous time stamps without discretization; and (ii) with BEV flow, CoBEVFlow only transports the original perceptual features, instead of generating new perceptual features, avoiding additional noises. To validate CoBEVFlow's efficacy, we create IRregular V2V(IRV2V), the first synthetic collaborative perception dataset with various temporal asynchronies that simulate different real-world scenarios. Extensive experiments conducted on both IRV2V and the real-world dataset DAIR-V2X show that CoBEVFlow consistently outperforms other baselines and is robust in extremely asynchronous settings. The code is available at https://github.com/MediaBrain-SJTU/CoBEVFlow.
By facilitating communication among multiple agents, collaborative perception can substantially boost each agent's perception ability. However, temporal asynchrony among agents is inevitable in real-world due to communication delays, interruptions, and clock misalignments. This issue causes information mismatch during multi-agent fusion, seriously shaking the foundation of collaboration. To address this issue, we propose CoBEVFlow, an asynchrony-robust collaborative 3D perception system based on bird's eye view (BEV) flow. The key intuition of CoBEVFlow is to compensate motions to align asynchronous collaboration messages sent by multiple agents. To model the motion in a scene, we propose BEV flow, which is a collection of the motion vector corresponding to each spatial location. Based on BEV flow, asynchronous perceptual features can be reassigned to appropriate positions, mitigating the impact of asynchrony. CoBEVFlow has two advantages: (i) CoBEVFlow can handle asynchronous collaboration messages sent at irregular, continuous time stamps without discretization; and (ii) with BEV flow, CoBEVFlow only transports the original perceptual features, instead of generating new perceptual features, avoiding additional noises. To validate CoBEVFlow's efficacy, we create IRregular V2V(IRV2V), the first synthetic collaborative perception dataset with various temporal asynchronies that simulate different real-world scenarios. Extensive experiments conducted on both IRV2V and the real-world dataset DAIR-V2X show that CoBEVFlow consistently outperforms other baselines and is robust in extremely asynchronous settings. The code will be released.
Cross-Modal sponsored search displays multi-modal advertisements (ads) when consumers look for desired products by natural language queries in search engines. Since multi-modal ads bring complementary details for query-ads matching, the ability to align ads-specific information in both images and texts is crucial for accurate and flexible sponsored search. Conventional research mainly studies from the view of modeling the implicit correlations between images and texts for query-ads matching, ignoring the alignment of detailed product information and resulting in suboptimal search performance.In this work, we propose a simple alignment network for explicitly mapping fine-grained visual parts in ads images to the corresponding text, which leverages the co-occurrence structure consistency between vision and language spaces without requiring expensive labeled training data. Moreover, we propose a novel model for cross-modal sponsored search that effectively conducts the cross-modal alignment and query-ads matching in two separate processes. In this way, the model matches the multi-modal input in the same language space, resulting in a superior performance with merely half of the training data. Our model outperforms the state-of-the-art models by 2.57% on a large commercial dataset. Besides sponsored search, our alignment method is applicable for general cross-modal search. We study a typical cross-modal retrieval task on the MSCOCO dataset, which achieves consistent performance improvement and proves the generalization ability of our method. Our code is available at https://github.com/Pter61/AlignCMSS/