Sim2Real (Simulation to Reality) techniques have gained prominence in robotic manipulation and motion planning due to their ability to enhance success rates by enabling agents to test and evaluate various policies and trajectories. In this paper, we investigate the advantages of integrating Sim2Real into robotic frameworks. We introduce the Triple Regression Sim2Real framework, which constructs a real-time digital twin. This twin serves as a replica of reality to simulate and evaluate multiple plans before their execution in real-world scenarios. Our triple regression approach addresses the reality gap by: (1) mitigating projection errors between real and simulated camera perspectives through the first two regression models, and (2) detecting discrepancies in robot control using the third regression model. Experiments on 6-DoF grasp and manipulation tasks (where the gripper can approach from any direction) highlight the effectiveness of our framework. Remarkably, with only RGB input images, our method achieves state-of-the-art success rates. This research advances efficient robot training methods and sets the stage for rapid advancements in robotics and automation.
Simulation-to-real is the task of training and developing machine learning models and deploying them in real settings with minimal additional training. This approach is becoming increasingly popular in fields such as robotics. However, there is often a gap between the simulated environment and the real world, and machine learning models trained in simulation may not perform as well in the real world. We propose a framework that utilizes a message-passing pipeline to minimize the information gap between simulation and reality. The message-passing pipeline is comprised of three modules: scene understanding, robot planning, and performance validation. First, the scene understanding module aims to match the scene layout between the real environment set-up and its digital twin. Then, the robot planning module solves a robotic task through trial and error in the simulation. Finally, the performance validation module varies the planning results by constantly checking the status difference of the robot and object status between the real set-up and the simulation. In the experiment, we perform a case study that requires a robot to make a cup of coffee. Results show that the robot is able to complete the task under our framework successfully. The robot follows the steps programmed into its system and utilizes its actuators to interact with the coffee machine and other tools required for the task. The results of this case study demonstrate the potential benefits of our method that drive robots for tasks that require precision and efficiency. Further research in this area could lead to the development of even more versatile and adaptable robots, opening up new possibilities for automation in various industries.
The ability to use the same distance threshold across different test classes / distributions is highly desired for a frictionless deployment of commercial image retrieval systems. However, state-of-the-art deep metric learning losses often result in highly varied intra-class and inter-class embedding structures, making threshold calibration a non-trivial process in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel metric named Operating-Point-Incosistency-Score (OPIS) that measures the variance in the operating characteristics across different classes in a target calibration range, and demonstrate that high accuracy of a metric learning embedding model does not guarantee calibration consistency for both seen and unseen classes. We find that, in the high-accuracy regime, there exists a Pareto frontier where accuracy improvement comes at the cost of calibration consistency. To address this, we develop a novel regularization, named Calibration-Aware Margin (CAM) loss, to encourage uniformity in the representation structures across classes during training. Extensive experiments demonstrate CAM's effectiveness in improving calibration-consistency while retaining or even enhancing accuracy, outperforming state-of-the-art deep metric learning methods.
This paper studies the fundamental problem of learning multi-layer generator models. The multi-layer generator model builds multiple layers of latent variables as a prior model on top of the generator, which benefits learning complex data distribution and hierarchical representations. However, such a prior model usually focuses on modeling inter-layer relations between latent variables by assuming non-informative (conditional) Gaussian distributions, which can be limited in model expressivity. To tackle this issue and learn more expressive prior models, we propose an energy-based model (EBM) on the joint latent space over all layers of latent variables with the multi-layer generator as its backbone. Such joint latent space EBM prior model captures the intra-layer contextual relations at each layer through layer-wise energy terms, and latent variables across different layers are jointly corrected. We develop a joint training scheme via maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), which involves Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling for both prior and posterior distributions of the latent variables from different layers. To ensure efficient inference and learning, we further propose a variational training scheme where an inference model is used to amortize the costly posterior MCMC sampling. Our experiments demonstrate that the learned model can be expressive in generating high-quality images and capturing hierarchical features for better outlier detection.
Generation of molecules with desired chemical and biological properties such as high drug-likeness, high binding affinity to target proteins, is critical for drug discovery. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic generative model to capture the joint distribution of molecules and their properties. Our model assumes an energy-based model (EBM) in the latent space. Conditional on the latent vector, the molecule and its properties are modeled by a molecule generation model and a property regression model respectively. To search for molecules with desired properties, we propose a sampling with gradual distribution shifting (SGDS) algorithm, so that after learning the model initially on the training data of existing molecules and their properties, the proposed algorithm gradually shifts the model distribution towards the region supported by molecules with desired values of properties. Our experiments show that our method achieves very strong performances on various molecule design tasks.
The capability to generate responses with diversity and faithfulness using factual knowledge is paramount for creating a human-like, trustworthy dialogue system. Common strategies either adopt a two-step paradigm, which optimizes knowledge selection and response generation separately, and may overlook the inherent correlation between these two tasks, or leverage conditional variational method to jointly optimize knowledge selection and response generation by employing an inference network. In this paper, we present an end-to-end learning framework, termed Sequential Posterior Inference (SPI), capable of selecting knowledge and generating dialogues by approximately sampling from the posterior distribution. Unlike other methods, SPI does not require the inference network or assume a simple geometry of the posterior distribution. This straightforward and intuitive inference procedure of SPI directly queries the response generation model, allowing for accurate knowledge selection and generation of faithful responses. In addition to modeling contributions, our experimental results on two common dialogue datasets (Wizard of Wikipedia and Holl-E) demonstrate that SPI outperforms previous strong baselines according to both automatic and human evaluation metrics.
We tackle the problem of threshold calibration for open-world recognition by incorporating representation compactness measures into clustering. Unlike the open-set recognition which focuses on discovering and rejecting the unknown, open-world recognition learns robust representations that are generalizable to disjoint unknown classes at test time. Our proposed method is based on two key observations: (i) representation structures among neighbouring images in high dimensional visual embedding spaces have strong self-similarity which can be leveraged to encourage transferability to the open world, (ii) intra-class embedding structures can be modeled with the marginalized von Mises-Fisher (vMF) probability, whose correlation with the true positive rate is dataset-invariant. Motivated by these, we design a unified framework centered around a graph neural network (GNN) to jointly predict the pseudo-labels and the vMF concentrations which indicate the representation compactness. These predictions can be converted into statistical estimations for recognition accuracy, allowing more robust calibration of the distance threshold to achieve target utility for the open-world classes. Results on a variety of visual recognition benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our method over traditional posthoc calibration methods for the open world, especially under distribution shift.
Large language models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable progress in various natural language processing tasks with emergent abilities. However, they face inherent limitations, such as an inability to access up-to-date information, utilize external tools, or perform precise mathematical reasoning. In this paper, we introduce Chameleon, a plug-and-play compositional reasoning framework that augments LLMs to help address these challenges. Chameleon synthesizes programs to compose various tools, including LLM models, off-the-shelf vision models, web search engines, Python functions, and rule-based modules tailored to user interests. Built on top of an LLM as a natural language planner, Chameleon infers the appropriate sequence of tools to compose and execute in order to generate a final response. We showcase the adaptability and effectiveness of Chameleon on two tasks: ScienceQA and TabMWP. Notably, Chameleon with GPT-4 achieves an 86.54% accuracy on ScienceQA, significantly improving upon the best published few-shot model by 11.37%; using GPT-4 as the underlying LLM, Chameleon achieves a 17.8% increase over the state-of-the-art model, leading to a 98.78% overall accuracy on TabMWP. Further studies suggest that using GPT-4 as a planner exhibits more consistent and rational tool selection and is able to infer potential constraints given the instructions, compared to other LLMs like ChatGPT.
We consider concept generalization at a large scale in the diverse and natural visual spectrum. Established computational modes (i.e., rule-based or similarity-based) are primarily studied isolated and focus on confined and abstract problem spaces. In this work, we study these two modes when the problem space scales up, and the $complexity$ of concepts becomes diverse. Specifically, at the $representational \ level$, we seek to answer how the complexity varies when a visual concept is mapped to the representation space. Prior psychology literature has shown that two types of complexities (i.e., subjective complexity and visual complexity) (Griffiths and Tenenbaum, 2003) build an inverted-U relation (Donderi, 2006; Sun and Firestone, 2021). Leveraging Representativeness of Attribute (RoA), we computationally confirm the following observation: Models use attributes with high RoA to describe visual concepts, and the description length falls in an inverted-U relation with the increment in visual complexity. At the $computational \ level$, we aim to answer how the complexity of representation affects the shift between the rule- and similarity-based generalization. We hypothesize that category-conditioned visual modeling estimates the co-occurrence frequency between visual and categorical attributes, thus potentially serving as the prior for the natural visual world. Experimental results show that representations with relatively high subjective complexity outperform those with relatively low subjective complexity in the rule-based generalization, while the trend is the opposite in the similarity-based generalization.