Seam carving is an image editing method that enable content-aware resizing, including operations like removing objects. However, the seam-finding strategy based on dynamic programming or graph-cut limits its applications to broader visual data formats and degrees of freedom for editing. Our observation is that describing the editing and retargeting of images more generally by a displacement field yields a generalisation of content-aware deformations. We propose to learn a deformation with a neural network that keeps the output plausible while trying to deform it only in places with low information content. This technique applies to different kinds of visual data, including images, 3D scenes given as neural radiance fields, or even polygon meshes. Experiments conducted on different visual data show that our method achieves better content-aware retargeting compared to previous methods.
Retrieval augmentation has become an effective solution to empower large language models (LLMs) with external and verified knowledge sources from the database, which overcomes the limitations and hallucinations of LLMs in handling up-to-date and domain-specific information. However, existing embedding models for text retrieval usually have three non-negligible limitations. First, the number and diversity of samples in a batch are too restricted to supervise the modeling of textual nuances at scale. Second, the high proportional noise are detrimental to the semantic correctness and consistency of embeddings. Third, the equal treatment to easy and difficult samples would cause sub-optimum convergence of embeddings with poorer generalization. In this paper, we propose the PEG, a progressively learned embeddings for robust text retrieval. Specifically, we increase the training in-batch negative samples to 80,000, and for each query, we extracted five hard negatives. Concurrently, we incorporated a progressive learning mechanism, enabling the model to dynamically modulate its attention to the samples throughout the entire training process. Additionally, PEG is trained on more than 100 million data, encompassing a wide range of domains (e.g., finance, medicine, and tourism) and covering various tasks (e.g., question-answering, machine reading comprehension, and similarity matching). Extensive experiments conducted on C-MTEB and DuReader demonstrate that PEG surpasses state-of-the-art embeddings in retrieving true positives, highlighting its significant potential for applications in LLMs. Our model is publicly available at https://huggingface.co/TownsWu/PEG.
State-of-the-art defenses against adversarial patch attacks can now achieve strong certifiable robustness with a marginal drop in model utility. However, this impressive performance typically comes at the cost of 10-100x more inference-time computation compared to undefended models -- the research community has witnessed an intense three-way trade-off between certifiable robustness, model utility, and computation efficiency. In this paper, we propose a defense framework named PatchCURE to approach this trade-off problem. PatchCURE provides sufficient "knobs" for tuning defense performance and allows us to build a family of defenses: the most robust PatchCURE instance can match the performance of any existing state-of-the-art defense (without efficiency considerations); the most efficient PatchCURE instance has similar inference efficiency as undefended models. Notably, PatchCURE achieves state-of-the-art robustness and utility performance across all different efficiency levels, e.g., 16-23% absolute clean accuracy and certified robust accuracy advantages over prior defenses when requiring computation efficiency to be close to undefended models. The family of PatchCURE defenses enables us to flexibly choose appropriate defenses to satisfy given computation and/or utility constraints in practice.
In this paper, we propose a novel method for 3D scene and object reconstruction from sparse multi-view images. Different from previous methods that leverage extra information such as depth or generalizable features across scenes, our approach leverages the scene properties embedded in the multi-view inputs to create precise pseudo-labels for optimization without any prior training. Specifically, we introduce a geometry-guided approach that improves surface reconstruction accuracy from sparse views by leveraging spherical harmonics to predict the novel radiance while holistically considering all color observations for a point in the scene. Also, our pipeline exploits proxy geometry and correctly handles the occlusion in generating the pseudo-labels of radiance, which previous image-warping methods fail to avoid. Our method, dubbed Ray Augmentation (RayAug), achieves superior results on DTU and Blender datasets without requiring prior training, demonstrating its effectiveness in addressing the problem of sparse view reconstruction. Our pipeline is flexible and can be integrated into other implicit neural reconstruction methods for sparse views.
This report introduce our work on Egocentric 3D Hand Pose Estimation workshop. Using AssemblyHands, this challenge focuses on egocentric 3D hand pose estimation from a single-view image. In the competition, we adopt ViT based backbones and a simple regressor for 3D keypoints prediction, which provides strong model baselines. We noticed that Hand-objects occlusions and self-occlusions lead to performance degradation, thus proposed a non-model method to merge multi-view results in the post-process stage. Moreover, We utilized test time augmentation and model ensemble to make further improvement. We also found that public dataset and rational preprocess are beneficial. Our method achieved 12.21mm MPJPE on test dataset, achieve the first place in Egocentric 3D Hand Pose Estimation challenge.
Diffusion models (DM) can gradually learn to remove noise, which have been widely used in artificial intelligence generated content (AIGC) in recent years. The property of DM for eliminating noise leads us to wonder whether DM can be applied to wireless communications to help the receiver mitigate the channel noise. To address this, we propose channel denoising diffusion models (CDDM) for semantic communications over wireless channels in this paper. CDDM can be applied as a new physical layer module after the channel equalization to learn the distribution of the channel input signal, and then utilizes this learned knowledge to remove the channel noise. We derive corresponding training and sampling algorithms of CDDM according to the forward diffusion process specially designed to adapt the channel models and theoretically prove that the well-trained CDDM can effectively reduce the conditional entropy of the received signal under small sampling steps. Moreover, we apply CDDM to a semantic communications system based on joint source-channel coding (JSCC) for image transmission. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that CDDM can further reduce the mean square error (MSE) after minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizer, and the joint CDDM and JSCC system achieves better performance than the JSCC system and the traditional JPEG2000 with low-density parity-check (LDPC) code approach.
Creating diverse and high-quality 3D assets with an automatic generative model is highly desirable. Despite extensive efforts on 3D generation, most existing works focus on the generation of a single category or a few categories. In this paper, we introduce a diffusion-based feed-forward framework for synthesizing massive categories of real-world 3D objects with a single generative model. Notably, there are three major challenges for this large-vocabulary 3D generation: a) the need for expressive yet efficient 3D representation; b) large diversity in geometry and texture across categories; c) complexity in the appearances of real-world objects. To this end, we propose a novel triplane-based 3D-aware Diffusion model with TransFormer, DiffTF, for handling challenges via three aspects. 1) Considering efficiency and robustness, we adopt a revised triplane representation and improve the fitting speed and accuracy. 2) To handle the drastic variations in geometry and texture, we regard the features of all 3D objects as a combination of generalized 3D knowledge and specialized 3D features. To extract generalized 3D knowledge from diverse categories, we propose a novel 3D-aware transformer with shared cross-plane attention. It learns the cross-plane relations across different planes and aggregates the generalized 3D knowledge with specialized 3D features. 3) In addition, we devise the 3D-aware encoder/decoder to enhance the generalized 3D knowledge in the encoded triplanes for handling categories with complex appearances. Extensive experiments on ShapeNet and OmniObject3D (over 200 diverse real-world categories) convincingly demonstrate that a single DiffTF model achieves state-of-the-art large-vocabulary 3D object generation performance with large diversity, rich semantics, and high quality.