In recent years, LiDAR-camera fusion models have markedly advanced 3D object detection tasks in autonomous driving. However, their robustness against common weather corruption such as fog, rain, snow, and sunlight in the intricate physical world remains underexplored. In this paper, we evaluate the robustness of fusion models from the perspective of fusion strategies on the corrupted dataset. Based on the evaluation, we further propose a concise yet practical fusion strategy to enhance the robustness of the fusion models, namely flexibly weighted fusing features from LiDAR and camera sources to adapt to varying weather scenarios. Experiments conducted on four types of fusion models, each with two distinct lightweight implementations, confirm the broad applicability and effectiveness of the approach.
This paper studies density-based clustering of point sets. These methods use dense regions of points to detect clusters of arbitrary shapes. In particular, we study variants of density peaks clustering, a popular type of algorithm that has been shown to work well in practice. Our goal is to cluster large high-dimensional datasets, which are prevalent in practice. Prior solutions are either sequential, and cannot scale to large data, or are specialized for low-dimensional data. This paper unifies the different variants of density peaks clustering into a single framework, PECANN, by abstracting out several key steps common to this class of algorithms. One such key step is to find nearest neighbors that satisfy a predicate function, and one of the main contributions of this paper is an efficient way to do this predicate search using graph-based approximate nearest neighbor search (ANNS). To provide ample parallelism, we propose a doubling search technique that enables points to find an approximate nearest neighbor satisfying the predicate in a small number of rounds. Our technique can be applied to many existing graph-based ANNS algorithms, which can all be plugged into PECANN. We implement five clustering algorithms with PECANN and evaluate them on synthetic and real-world datasets with up to 1.28 million points and up to 1024 dimensions on a 30-core machine with two-way hyper-threading. Compared to the state-of-the-art FASTDP algorithm for high-dimensional density peaks clustering, which is sequential, our best algorithm is 45x-734x faster while achieving competitive ARI scores. Compared to the state-of-the-art parallel DPC-based algorithm, which is optimized for low dimensions, we show that PECANN is two orders of magnitude faster. As far as we know, our work is the first to evaluate DPC variants on large high-dimensional real-world image and text embedding datasets.
Transferability of adversarial examples on image classification has been systematically explored, which generates adversarial examples in black-box mode. However, the transferability of adversarial examples on semantic segmentation has been largely overlooked. In this paper, we propose an effective two-stage adversarial attack strategy to improve the transferability of adversarial examples on semantic segmentation, dubbed TranSegPGD. Specifically, at the first stage, every pixel in an input image is divided into different branches based on its adversarial property. Different branches are assigned different weights for optimization to improve the adversarial performance of all pixels.We assign high weights to the loss of the hard-to-attack pixels to misclassify all pixels. At the second stage, the pixels are divided into different branches based on their transferable property which is dependent on Kullback-Leibler divergence. Different branches are assigned different weights for optimization to improve the transferability of the adversarial examples. We assign high weights to the loss of the high-transferability pixels to improve the transferability of adversarial examples. Extensive experiments with various segmentation models are conducted on PASCAL VOC 2012 and Cityscapes datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed adversarial attack method can achieve state-of-the-art performance.
Federated Learning (FL) enables collaborative learning of large-scale distributed clients without data sharing. However, due to the disparity of computing resources among massive mobile computing devices, the performance of traditional homogeneous model-based Federated Learning (FL) is seriously limited. On the one hand, to achieve model training in all the diverse clients, mobile computing systems can only use small low-performance models for collaborative learning. On the other hand, devices with high computing resources cannot train a high-performance large model with their insufficient raw data. To address the resource-constrained problem in mobile computing systems, we present a novel heterogeneous FL approach named AdapterFL, which uses a model reassemble strategy to facilitate collaborative training of massive heterogeneous mobile devices adaptively. Specifically, we select multiple candidate heterogeneous models based on the computing performance of massive mobile devices and then divide each heterogeneous model into two partitions. By reassembling the partitions, we can generate models with varied sizes that are combined by the partial parameters of the large model with the partial parameters of the small model. Using these reassembled models for FL training, we can train the partial parameters of the large model using low-performance devices. In this way, we can alleviate performance degradation in large models due to resource constraints. The experimental results show that AdapterFL can achieve up to 12\% accuracy improvement compared to the state-of-the-art heterogeneous federated learning methods in resource-constrained scenarios.
As a distributed machine learning paradigm, Federated Learning (FL) enables large-scale clients to collaboratively train a model without sharing their raw data. However, due to the lack of data auditing for untrusted clients, FL is vulnerable to poisoning attacks, especially backdoor attacks. By using poisoned data for local training or directly changing the model parameters, attackers can easily inject backdoors into the model, which can trigger the model to make misclassification of targeted patterns in images. To address these issues, we propose a novel data-free trigger-generation-based defense approach based on the two characteristics of backdoor attacks: i) triggers are learned faster than normal knowledge, and ii) trigger patterns have a greater effect on image classification than normal class patterns. Our approach generates the images with newly learned knowledge by identifying the differences between the old and new global models, and filters trigger images by evaluating the effect of these generated images. By using these trigger images, our approach eliminates poisoned models to ensure the updated global model is benign. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that our approach can defend against almost all the existing types of backdoor attacks and outperform all the seven state-of-the-art defense methods with both IID and non-IID scenarios. Especially, our approach can successfully defend against the backdoor attack even when 80\% of the clients are malicious.
Machine learning is widely used to make decisions with societal impact such as bank loan approving, criminal sentencing, and resume filtering. How to ensure its fairness while maintaining utility is a challenging but crucial issue. Fairness is a complex and context-dependent concept with over 70 different measurement metrics. Since existing regulations are often vague in terms of which metric to use and different organizations may prefer different fairness metrics, it is important to have means of improving fairness comprehensively. Existing mitigation techniques often target at one specific fairness metric and have limitations in improving multiple notions of fairness simultaneously. In this work, we propose CFU (Comprehensive Fairness-Utility), a reinforcement learning-based framework, to efficiently improve the fairness-utility trade-off in machine learning classifiers. A comprehensive measurement that can simultaneously consider multiple fairness notions as well as utility is established, and new metrics are proposed based on an in-depth analysis of the relationship between different fairness metrics. The reward function of CFU is constructed with comprehensive measurement and new metrics. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate CFU on 6 tasks, 3 machine learning models, and 15 fairness-utility measurements. The results demonstrate that CFU can improve the classifier on multiple fairness metrics without sacrificing its utility. It outperforms all state-of-the-art techniques and has witnessed a 37.5% improvement on average.
Segment anything model (SAM) has presented impressive objectness identification capability with the idea of prompt learning and a new collected large-scale dataset. Given a prompt (e.g., points, bounding boxes, or masks) and an input image, SAM is able to generate valid segment masks for all objects indicated by the prompts, presenting high generalization across diverse scenarios and being a general method for zero-shot transfer to downstream vision tasks. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether SAM may introduce errors in certain threatening scenarios. Clarifying this is of significant importance for applications that require robustness, such as autonomous vehicles. In this paper, we aim to study the testing-time robustness of SAM under adversarial scenarios and common corruptions. To this end, we first build a testing-time robustness evaluation benchmark for SAM by integrating existing public datasets. Second, we extend representative adversarial attacks against SAM and study the influence of different prompts on robustness. Third, we study the robustness of SAM under diverse corruption types by evaluating SAM on corrupted datasets with different prompts. With experiments conducted on SA-1B and KITTI datasets, we find that SAM exhibits remarkable robustness against various corruptions, except for blur-related corruption. Furthermore, SAM remains susceptible to adversarial attacks, particularly when subjected to PGD and BIM attacks. We think such a comprehensive study could highlight the importance of the robustness issues of SAM and trigger a series of new tasks for SAM as well as downstream vision tasks.
The adversarial patch attack aims to fool image classifiers within a bounded, contiguous region of arbitrary changes, posing a real threat to computer vision systems (e.g., autonomous driving, content moderation, biometric authentication, medical imaging) in the physical world. To address this problem in a trustworthy way, proposals have been made for certified patch defenses that ensure the robustness of classification models and prevent future patch attacks from breaching the defense. State-of-the-art certified defenses can be compatible with any model architecture, as well as achieve high clean and certified accuracy. Although the methods are adaptive to arbitrary patch positions, they inevitably need to access the size of the adversarial patch, which is unreasonable and impractical in real-world attack scenarios. To improve the feasibility of the architecture-agnostic certified defense in a black-box setting (i.e., position and size of the patch are both unknown), we propose a novel two-stage Iterative Black-box Certified Defense method, termed IBCD.In the first stage, it estimates the patch size in a search-based manner by evaluating the size relationship between the patch and mask with pixel masking. In the second stage, the accuracy results are calculated by the existing white-box certified defense methods with the estimated patch size. The experiments conducted on two popular model architectures and two datasets verify the effectiveness and efficiency of IBCD.
Although Federated Learning (FL) enables global model training across clients without compromising their raw data, existing Federated Averaging (FedAvg)-based methods suffer from the problem of low inference performance, especially for unevenly distributed data among clients. This is mainly because i) FedAvg initializes client models with the same global models, which makes the local training hard to escape from the local search for optimal solutions; and ii) by averaging model parameters in a coarse manner, FedAvg eclipses the individual characteristics of local models. To address such issues that strongly limit the inference capability of FL, we propose a novel and effective FL paradigm named FedMR (Federated Model Recombination). Unlike conventional FedAvg-based methods, the cloud server of FedMR shuffles each layer of collected local models and recombines them to achieve new models for local training on clients. Due to the diversified initialization models for clients coupled with fine-grained model recombination, FedMR can converge to a well-generalized global model for all the clients, leading to a superior inference performance. Experimental results show that, compared with state-of-the-art FL methods, FedMR can significantly improve inference accuracy in a quicker manner without exposing client privacy.
* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2208.07677