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Hao Zhu

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FINER: Flexible spectral-bias tuning in Implicit NEural Representation by Variable-periodic Activation Functions

Dec 05, 2023
Zhen Liu, Hao Zhu, Qi Zhang, Jingde Fu, Weibing Deng, Zhan Ma, Yanwen Guo, Xun Cao

Implicit Neural Representation (INR), which utilizes a neural network to map coordinate inputs to corresponding attributes, is causing a revolution in the field of signal processing. However, current INR techniques suffer from a restricted capability to tune their supported frequency set, resulting in imperfect performance when representing complex signals with multiple frequencies. We have identified that this frequency-related problem can be greatly alleviated by introducing variable-periodic activation functions, for which we propose FINER. By initializing the bias of the neural network within different ranges, sub-functions with various frequencies in the variable-periodic function are selected for activation. Consequently, the supported frequency set of FINER can be flexibly tuned, leading to improved performance in signal representation. We demonstrate the capabilities of FINER in the contexts of 2D image fitting, 3D signed distance field representation, and 5D neural radiance fields optimization, and we show that it outperforms existing INRs.

* 10 pages, 9 figures 
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VividTalk: One-Shot Audio-Driven Talking Head Generation Based on 3D Hybrid Prior

Dec 04, 2023
Xusen Sun, Longhao Zhang, Hao Zhu, Peng Zhang, Bang Zhang, Xinya Ji, Kangneng Zhou, Daiheng Gao, Liefeng Bo, Xun Cao

Audio-driven talking head generation has drawn much attention in recent years, and many efforts have been made in lip-sync, expressive facial expressions, natural head pose generation, and high video quality. However, no model has yet led or tied on all these metrics due to the one-to-many mapping between audio and motion. In this paper, we propose VividTalk, a two-stage generic framework that supports generating high-visual quality talking head videos with all the above properties. Specifically, in the first stage, we map the audio to mesh by learning two motions, including non-rigid expression motion and rigid head motion. For expression motion, both blendshape and vertex are adopted as the intermediate representation to maximize the representation ability of the model. For natural head motion, a novel learnable head pose codebook with a two-phase training mechanism is proposed. In the second stage, we proposed a dual branch motion-vae and a generator to transform the meshes into dense motion and synthesize high-quality video frame-by-frame. Extensive experiments show that the proposed VividTalk can generate high-visual quality talking head videos with lip-sync and realistic enhanced by a large margin, and outperforms previous state-of-the-art works in objective and subjective comparisons.

* 10 pages, 8 figures 
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Relightable 3D Gaussian: Real-time Point Cloud Relighting with BRDF Decomposition and Ray Tracing

Nov 27, 2023
Jian Gao, Chun Gu, Youtian Lin, Hao Zhu, Xun Cao, Li Zhang, Yao Yao

We present a novel differentiable point-based rendering framework for material and lighting decomposition from multi-view images, enabling editing, ray-tracing, and real-time relighting of the 3D point cloud. Specifically, a 3D scene is represented as a set of relightable 3D Gaussian points, where each point is additionally associated with a normal direction, BRDF parameters, and incident lights from different directions. To achieve robust lighting estimation, we further divide incident lights of each point into global and local components, as well as view-dependent visibilities. The 3D scene is optimized through the 3D Gaussian Splatting technique while BRDF and lighting are decomposed by physically-based differentiable rendering. Moreover, we introduce an innovative point-based ray-tracing approach based on the bounding volume hierarchy for efficient visibility baking, enabling real-time rendering and relighting of 3D Gaussian points with accurate shadow effects. Extensive experiments demonstrate improved BRDF estimation and novel view rendering results compared to state-of-the-art material estimation approaches. Our framework showcases the potential to revolutionize the mesh-based graphics pipeline with a relightable, traceable, and editable rendering pipeline solely based on point cloud. Project page:

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L(M)V-IQL: Multiple Intention Inverse Reinforcement Learning for Animal Behavior Characterization

Nov 23, 2023
Hao Zhu, Brice De La Crompe, Gabriel Kalweit, Artur Schneider, Maria Kalweit, Ilka Diester, Joschka Boedecker

In advancing the understanding of decision-making processes, mathematical models, particularly Inverse Reinforcement Learning (IRL), have proven instrumental in reconstructing animal's multiple intentions amidst complex behaviors. Given the recent development of a continuous-time multi-intention IRL framework, there has been persistent inquiry into inferring discrete time-varying reward functions with multiple intention IRL approaches. To tackle the challenge, we introduce the Latent (Markov) Variable Inverse Q-learning (L(M)V-IQL) algorithms, a novel IRL framework tailored for accommodating discrete intrinsic rewards. Leveraging an Expectation-Maximization approach, we cluster observed trajectories into distinct intentions and independently solve the IRL problem for each. Demonstrating the efficacy of L(M)V-IQL through simulated experiments and its application to different real mouse behavior datasets, our approach surpasses current benchmarks in animal behavior prediction, producing interpretable reward functions. This advancement holds promise for neuroscience and psychology, contributing to a deeper understanding of animal decision-making and uncovering underlying brain mechanisms.

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Alignment and Outer Shell Isotropy for Hyperbolic Graph Contrastive Learning

Oct 27, 2023
Yifei Zhang, Hao Zhu, Jiahong Liu, Piotr Koniusz, Irwin King

Learning good self-supervised graph representations that are beneficial to downstream tasks is challenging. Among a variety of methods, contrastive learning enjoys competitive performance. The embeddings of contrastive learning are arranged on a hypersphere that enables the Cosine distance measurement in the Euclidean space. However, the underlying structure of many domains such as graphs exhibits highly non-Euclidean latent geometry. To this end, we propose a novel contrastive learning framework to learn high-quality graph embedding. Specifically, we design the alignment metric that effectively captures the hierarchical data-invariant information, as well as we propose a substitute of uniformity metric to prevent the so-called dimensional collapse. We show that in the hyperbolic space one has to address the leaf- and height-level uniformity which are related to properties of trees, whereas in the ambient space of the hyperbolic manifold, these notions translate into imposing an isotropic ring density towards boundaries of Poincar\'e ball. This ring density can be easily imposed by promoting the isotropic feature distribution on the tangent space of manifold. In the experiments, we demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed method across different hyperbolic graph embedding techniques in both supervised and self-supervised learning settings.

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SOTOPIA: Interactive Evaluation for Social Intelligence in Language Agents

Oct 18, 2023
Xuhui Zhou, Hao Zhu, Leena Mathur, Ruohong Zhang, Haofei Yu, Zhengyang Qi, Louis-Philippe Morency, Yonatan Bisk, Daniel Fried, Graham Neubig, Maarten Sap

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Humans are social beings; we pursue social goals in our daily interactions, which is a crucial aspect of social intelligence. Yet, AI systems' abilities in this realm remain elusive. We present SOTOPIA, an open-ended environment to simulate complex social interactions between artificial agents and evaluate their social intelligence. In our environment, agents role-play and interact under a wide variety of scenarios; they coordinate, collaborate, exchange, and compete with each other to achieve complex social goals. We simulate the role-play interaction between LLM-based agents and humans within this task space and evaluate their performance with a holistic evaluation framework called SOTOPIA-Eval. With SOTOPIA, we find significant differences between these models in terms of their social intelligence, and we identify a subset of SOTOPIA scenarios, SOTOPIA-hard, that is generally challenging for all models. We find that on this subset, GPT-4 achieves a significantly lower goal completion rate than humans and struggles to exhibit social commonsense reasoning and strategic communication skills. These findings demonstrate SOTOPIA's promise as a general platform for research on evaluating and improving social intelligence in artificial agents.

* Preprint, 43 pages. The first two authors contribute equally 
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PaintHuman: Towards High-fidelity Text-to-3D Human Texturing via Denoised Score Distillation

Oct 14, 2023
Jianhui Yu, Hao Zhu, Liming Jiang, Chen Change Loy, Weidong Cai, Wayne Wu

Figure 1 for PaintHuman: Towards High-fidelity Text-to-3D Human Texturing via Denoised Score Distillation
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Recent advances in zero-shot text-to-3D human generation, which employ the human model prior (eg, SMPL) or Score Distillation Sampling (SDS) with pre-trained text-to-image diffusion models, have been groundbreaking. However, SDS may provide inaccurate gradient directions under the weak diffusion guidance, as it tends to produce over-smoothed results and generate body textures that are inconsistent with the detailed mesh geometry. Therefore, directly leverage existing strategies for high-fidelity text-to-3D human texturing is challenging. In this work, we propose a model called PaintHuman to addresses the challenges from two aspects. We first propose a novel score function, Denoised Score Distillation (DSD), which directly modifies the SDS by introducing negative gradient components to iteratively correct the gradient direction and generate high-quality textures. In addition, we use the depth map as a geometric guidance to ensure the texture is semantically aligned to human mesh surfaces. To guarantee the quality of rendered results, we employ geometry-aware networks to predict surface materials and render realistic human textures. Extensive experiments, benchmarked against state-of-the-art methods, validate the efficacy of our approach.

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Tracking Anything in Heart All at Once

Oct 04, 2023
Chengkang Shen, Hao Zhu, You Zhou, Yu Liu, Si Yi, Lili Dong, Weipeng Zhao, David J. Brady, Xun Cao, Zhan Ma, Yi Lin

Myocardial motion tracking stands as an essential clinical tool in the prevention and detection of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs), the foremost cause of death globally. However, current techniques suffer incomplete and inaccurate motion estimation of the myocardium both in spatial and temporal dimensions, hindering the early identification of myocardial dysfunction. In addressing these challenges, this paper introduces the Neural Cardiac Motion Field (NeuralCMF). NeuralCMF leverages the implicit neural representation (INR) to model the 3D structure and the comprehensive 6D forward/backward motion of the heart. This approach offers memory-efficient storage and continuous capability to query the precise shape and motion of the myocardium throughout the cardiac cycle at any specific point. Notably, NeuralCMF operates without the need for paired datasets, and its optimization is self-supervised through the physics knowledge priors both in space and time dimensions, ensuring compatibility with both 2D and 3D echocardiogram video inputs. Experimental validations across three representative datasets support the robustness and innovative nature of the NeuralCMF, marking significant advantages over existing state-of-the-arts in cardiac imaging and motion tracking.

* 10 pages, 5 figures 
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Data-driven Forced Oscillation Localization using Inferred Impulse Responses

Oct 02, 2023
Shaohui Liu, Hao Zhu, Vassilis Kekatos

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Poorly damped oscillations pose threats to the stability and reliability of interconnected power systems. In this work, we propose a comprehensive data-driven framework for inferring the sources of forced oscillation (FO) using only synchrophasor measurements. During normal grid operations, fast-rate ambient data are collected to recover the impulse responses in the small-signal regime, without requiring the system models. When FO events occur, the source is estimated based on the frequency domain analysis by fitting the least-squares (LS) error for the FO data using the impulse responses recovered previously. Although the proposed framework is purely data-driven, the result has been established theoretically via model-based analysis of linearized dynamics under a few realistic assumptions. Numerical validations demonstrate its applicability to realistic power systems including nonlinear, higher-order dynamics with control effects using the IEEE 68-bus system. The generalizability of the proposed methodology has been validated using different types of measurements and partial sensor coverage conditions.

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RHINO: Regularizing the Hash-based Implicit Neural Representation

Sep 22, 2023
Hao Zhu, Fengyi Liu, Qi Zhang, Xun Cao, Zhan Ma

The use of Implicit Neural Representation (INR) through a hash-table has demonstrated impressive effectiveness and efficiency in characterizing intricate signals. However, current state-of-the-art methods exhibit insufficient regularization, often yielding unreliable and noisy results during interpolations. We find that this issue stems from broken gradient flow between input coordinates and indexed hash-keys, where the chain rule attempts to model discrete hash-keys, rather than the continuous coordinates. To tackle this concern, we introduce RHINO, in which a continuous analytical function is incorporated to facilitate regularization by connecting the input coordinate and the network additionally without modifying the architecture of current hash-based INRs. This connection ensures a seamless backpropagation of gradients from the network's output back to the input coordinates, thereby enhancing regularization. Our experimental results not only showcase the broadened regularization capability across different hash-based INRs like DINER and Instant NGP, but also across a variety of tasks such as image fitting, representation of signed distance functions, and optimization of 5D static / 6D dynamic neural radiance fields. Notably, RHINO outperforms current state-of-the-art techniques in both quality and speed, affirming its superiority.

* 17 pages, 11 figures 
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