The integration of different imaging modalities, such as structural, diffusion tensor, and functional magnetic resonance imaging, with deep learning models has yielded promising outcomes in discerning phenotypic characteristics and enhancing disease diagnosis. The development of such a technique hinges on the efficient fusion of heterogeneous multimodal features, which initially reside within distinct representation spaces. Naively fusing the multimodal features does not adequately capture the complementary information and could even produce redundancy. In this work, we present a novel joint self-supervised and supervised contrastive learning method to learn the robust latent feature representation from multimodal MRI data, allowing the projection of heterogeneous features into a shared common space, and thereby amalgamating both complementary and analogous information across various modalities and among similar subjects. We performed a comparative analysis between our proposed method and alternative deep multimodal learning approaches. Through extensive experiments on two independent datasets, the results demonstrated that our method is significantly superior to several other deep multimodal learning methods in predicting abnormal neurodevelopment. Our method has the capability to facilitate computer-aided diagnosis within clinical practice, harnessing the power of multimodal data.
Multi-view clustering (MVC) has had significant implications in cross-modal representation learning and data-driven decision-making in recent years. It accomplishes this by leveraging the consistency and complementary information among multiple views to cluster samples into distinct groups. However, as contrastive learning continues to evolve within the field of computer vision, self-supervised learning has also made substantial research progress and is progressively becoming dominant in MVC methods. It guides the clustering process by designing proxy tasks to mine the representation of image and video data itself as supervisory information. Despite the rapid development of self-supervised MVC, there has yet to be a comprehensive survey to analyze and summarize the current state of research progress. Therefore, this paper explores the reasons and advantages of the emergence of self-supervised MVC and discusses the internal connections and classifications of common datasets, data issues, representation learning methods, and self-supervised learning methods. This paper does not only introduce the mechanisms for each category of methods but also gives a few examples of how these techniques are used. In the end, some open problems are pointed out for further investigation and development.
The computer-aided disease diagnosis from radiomic data is important in many medical applications. However, developing such a technique relies on annotating radiological images, which is a time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive process. In this work, we present the first novel collaborative self-supervised learning method to solve the challenge of insufficient labeled radiomic data, whose characteristics are different from text and image data. To achieve this, we present two collaborative pretext tasks that explore the latent pathological or biological relationships between regions of interest and the similarity and dissimilarity information between subjects. Our method collaboratively learns the robust latent feature representations from radiomic data in a self-supervised manner to reduce human annotation efforts, which benefits the disease diagnosis. We compared our proposed method with other state-of-the-art self-supervised learning methods on a simulation study and two independent datasets. Extensive experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms other self-supervised learning methods on both classification and regression tasks. With further refinement, our method shows the potential advantage in automatic disease diagnosis with large-scale unlabeled data available.
Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that brain anatomical abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in preterm infants. Brain maturation and geometric features can be used with machine learning models for predicting later neurodevelopmental deficits. However, traditional machine learning models would suffer from a large feature-to-instance ratio (i.e., a large number of features but a small number of instances/samples). Ensemble learning is a paradigm that strategically generates and integrates a library of machine learning classifiers and has been successfully used on a wide variety of predictive modeling problems to boost model performance. Attribute (i.e., feature) bagging method is the most commonly used feature partitioning scheme, which randomly and repeatedly draws feature subsets from the entire feature set. Although attribute bagging method can effectively reduce feature dimensionality to handle the large feature-to-instance ratio, it lacks consideration of domain knowledge and latent relationship among features. In this study, we proposed a novel Ontology-guided Attribute Partitioning (OAP) method to better draw feature subsets by considering domain-specific relationship among features. With the better partitioned feature subsets, we developed an ensemble learning framework, which is referred to as OAP Ensemble Learning (OAP-EL). We applied the OAP-EL to predict cognitive deficits at 2 year of age using quantitative brain maturation and geometric features obtained at term equivalent age in very preterm infants. We demonstrated that the proposed OAP-EL approach significantly outperformed the peer ensemble learning and traditional machine learning approaches.
Heat demand prediction is a prominent research topic in the area of intelligent energy networks. It has been well recognized that periodicity is one of the important characteristics of heat demand. Seasonal-trend decomposition based on LOESS (STL) algorithm can analyze the periodicity of a heat demand series, and decompose the series into seasonal and trend components. Then, predicting the seasonal and trend components respectively, and combining their predictions together as the heat demand prediction is a possible way to predict heat demand. In this paper, STL-ENN-ARIMA (SEA), a combined model, was proposed based on the combination of the Elman neural network (ENN) and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, which are commonly applied to heat demand prediction. ENN and ARIMA are used to predict seasonal and trend components, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SEA model has a promising performance.