Large language models (LLMs) have shown promise for generative and knowledge-intensive tasks including question-answering (QA) tasks. However, the practical deployment still faces challenges, notably the issue of "hallucination", where models generate plausible-sounding but unfaithful or nonsensical information. This issue becomes particularly critical in the medical domain due to the uncommon professional concepts and potential social risks involved. This paper analyses the phenomenon of hallucination in medical generative QA systems using widely adopted LLMs and datasets. Our investigation centers on the identification and comprehension of common problematic answers, with a specific emphasis on hallucination. To tackle this challenge, we present an interactive self-reflection methodology that incorporates knowledge acquisition and answer generation. Through this feedback process, our approach steadily enhances the factuality, consistency, and entailment of the generated answers. Consequently, we harness the interactivity and multitasking ability of LLMs and produce progressively more precise and accurate answers. Experimental results on both automatic and human evaluation demonstrate the superiority of our approach in hallucination reduction compared to baselines.
Query-Focused Meeting Summarization (QFMS) aims to generate a summary of a given meeting transcript conditioned upon a query. The main challenges for QFMS are the long input text length and sparse query-relevant information in the meeting transcript. In this paper, we propose a knowledge-enhanced two-stage framework called Knowledge-Aware Summarizer (KAS) to tackle the challenges. In the first stage, we introduce knowledge-aware scores to improve the query-relevant segment extraction. In the second stage, we incorporate query-relevant knowledge in the summary generation. Experimental results on the QMSum dataset show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance. Further analysis proves the competency of our methods in generating relevant and faithful summaries.
Instruction-tuned large language models (LLMs) have shown remarkable generalization capability over multiple tasks in multiple languages. Nevertheless, their generalization towards different languages varies especially to underrepresented languages or even to unseen languages. Prior works on adapting new languages to LLMs find that naively adapting new languages to instruction-tuned LLMs will result in catastrophic forgetting, which in turn causes the loss of multitasking ability in these LLMs. To tackle this, we propose the Instruct-Align a.k.a (IA)$^1$ framework, which enables instruction-tuned LLMs to learn cross-lingual alignment between unseen and previously learned languages via alignment-based cross-lingual instruction-tuning. Our preliminary result on BLOOMZ-560M shows that (IA)$^1$ is able to learn a new language effectively with only a limited amount of parallel data and at the same time prevent catastrophic forgetting by applying continual instruction-tuning through experience replay. Our work contributes to the progression of language adaptation methods for instruction-tuned LLMs and opens up the possibility of adapting underrepresented low-resource languages into existing instruction-tuned LLMs. Our code will be publicly released upon acceptance.
This paper proposes a framework for quantitatively evaluating interactive LLMs such as ChatGPT using publicly available data sets. We carry out an extensive technical evaluation of ChatGPT using 23 data sets covering 8 different common NLP application tasks. We evaluate the multitask, multilingual and multi-modal aspects of ChatGPT based on these data sets and a newly designed multimodal dataset. We find that ChatGPT outperforms LLMs with zero-shot learning on most tasks and even outperforms fine-tuned models on some tasks. We find that it is better at understanding non-Latin script languages than generating them. It is able to generate multimodal content from textual prompts, via an intermediate code generation step. Moreover, we find that ChatGPT is 63.41% accurate on average in 10 different reasoning categories under logical reasoning, non-textual reasoning, and commonsense reasoning, hence making it an unreliable reasoner. It is, for example, better at deductive than inductive reasoning. ChatGPT suffers from hallucination problems like other LLMs and it generates more extrinsic hallucinations from its parametric memory as it does not have access to an external knowledge base. Finally, the interactive feature of ChatGPT enables human collaboration with the underlying LLM to improve its performance, i.e, 8% ROUGE-1 on summarization and 2% ChrF++ on machine translation, in a multi-turn "prompt engineering" fashion. We also release codebase for evaluation set extraction.
We present NusaCrowd, a collaborative initiative to collect and unite existing resources for Indonesian languages, including opening access to previously non-public resources. Through this initiative, we have has brought together 137 datasets and 117 standardized data loaders. The quality of the datasets has been assessed manually and automatically, and their effectiveness has been demonstrated in multiple experiments. NusaCrowd's data collection enables the creation of the first zero-shot benchmarks for natural language understanding and generation in Indonesian and its local languages. Furthermore, NusaCrowd brings the creation of the first multilingual automatic speech recognition benchmark in Indonesian and its local languages. Our work is intended to help advance natural language processing research in under-represented languages.
Dialogue systems can leverage large pre-trained language models and knowledge to generate fluent and informative responses. However, these models are still prone to produce hallucinated responses not supported by the input source, which greatly hinders their application. The heterogeneity between external knowledge and dialogue context challenges representation learning and source integration, and further contributes to unfaithfulness. To handle this challenge and generate more faithful responses, this paper presents RHO ($\rho$) utilizing the representations of linked entities and relation predicates from a knowledge graph (KG). We propose (1) local knowledge grounding to combine textual embeddings with the corresponding KG embeddings; and (2) global knowledge grounding to equip RHO with multi-hop reasoning abilities via the attention mechanism. In addition, we devise a response re-ranking technique based on walks over KG sub-graphs for better conversational reasoning. Experimental results on OpenDialKG show that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods on both automatic and human evaluation by a large margin, especially in hallucination reduction (17.54% in FeQA).
Developing robust and fair AI systems require datasets with comprehensive set of labels that can help ensure the validity and legitimacy of relevant measurements. Recent efforts, therefore, focus on collecting person-related datasets that have carefully selected labels, including sensitive characteristics, and consent forms in place to use those attributes for model testing and development. Responsible data collection involves several stages, including but not limited to determining use-case scenarios, selecting categories (annotations) such that the data are fit for the purpose of measuring algorithmic bias for subgroups and most importantly ensure that the selected categories/subcategories are robust to regional diversities and inclusive of as many subgroups as possible. Meta, in a continuation of our efforts to measure AI algorithmic bias and robustness (https://ai.facebook.com/blog/shedding-light-on-fairness-in-ai-with-a-new-data-set), is working on collecting a large consent-driven dataset with a comprehensive list of categories. This paper describes our proposed design of such categories and subcategories for Casual Conversations v2.
Many NLP classification tasks, such as sexism/racism detection or toxicity detection, are based on human values. Yet, human values can vary under diverse cultural conditions. Therefore, we introduce a framework for value-aligned classification that performs prediction based on explicitly written human values in the command. Along with the task, we propose a practical approach that distills value-aligned knowledge from large-scale language models (LLMs) to construct value-aligned classifiers in two steps. First, we generate value-aligned training data from LLMs by prompt-based few-shot learning. Next, we fine-tune smaller classification models with the generated data for the task. Empirical results show that our VA-Models surpass multiple baselines by at least 15.56% on the F1-score, including few-shot learning with OPT-175B and existing text augmentation methods. We suggest that using classifiers with explicit human value input improves both inclusivity & explainability in AI.
With the rise of deep learning and intelligent vehicles, the smart assistant has become an essential in-car component to facilitate driving and provide extra functionalities. In-car smart assistants should be able to process general as well as car-related commands and perform corresponding actions, which eases driving and improves safety. However, in this research field, most datasets are in major languages, such as English and Chinese. There is a huge data scarcity issue for low-resource languages, hindering the development of research and applications for broader communities. Therefore, it is crucial to have more benchmarks to raise awareness and motivate the research in low-resource languages. To mitigate this problem, we collect a new dataset, namely Cantonese In-car Audio-Visual Speech Recognition (CI-AVSR), for in-car speech recognition in the Cantonese language with video and audio data. Together with it, we propose Cantonese Audio-Visual Speech Recognition for In-car Commands as a new challenge for the community to tackle low-resource speech recognition under in-car scenarios.