Inference, especially those derived from inductive processes, is a crucial component in our conversation to complement the information implicitly or explicitly conveyed by a speaker. While recent large language models show remarkable advances in inference tasks, their performance in inductive reasoning, where not all information is present in the context, is far behind deductive reasoning. In this paper, we analyze the behavior of the models based on the task difficulty defined by the semantic information gap -- which distinguishes inductive and deductive reasoning (Johnson-Laird, 1988, 1993). Our analysis reveals that the disparity in information between dialogue contexts and desired inferences poses a significant challenge to the inductive inference process. To mitigate this information gap, we investigate a contrastive learning approach by feeding negative samples. Our experiments suggest negative samples help models understand what is wrong and improve their inference generations.
Large language models (LLMs) have been used for diverse tasks in natural language processing (NLP), yet remain under-explored for task-oriented dialogue systems (TODS), especially for end-to-end TODS. We present InstructTODS, a novel off-the-shelf framework for zero-shot end-to-end task-oriented dialogue systems that can adapt to diverse domains without fine-tuning. By leveraging LLMs, InstructTODS generates a proxy belief state that seamlessly translates user intentions into dynamic queries for efficient interaction with any KB. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that InstructTODS achieves comparable performance to fully fine-tuned TODS in guiding dialogues to successful completion without prior knowledge or task-specific data. Furthermore, a rigorous human evaluation of end-to-end TODS shows that InstructTODS produces dialogue responses that notably outperform both the gold responses and the state-of-the-art TODS in terms of helpfulness, informativeness, and humanness. Moreover, the effectiveness of LLMs in TODS is further supported by our comprehensive evaluations on TODS subtasks: dialogue state tracking, intent classification, and response generation. Code and implementations could be found here https://github.com/WillyHC22/InstructTODS/
Grounding dialogue response generation on external knowledge is proposed to produce informative and engaging responses. However, current knowledge-grounded dialogue (KGD) systems often fail to align the generated responses with human-preferred qualities due to several issues like hallucination and the lack of coherence. Upon analyzing multiple language model generations, we observe the presence of alternative generated responses within a single decoding process. These alternative responses are more faithful and exhibit a comparable or higher level of relevance to prior conversational turns compared to the optimal responses prioritized by the decoding processes. To address these challenges and driven by these observations, we propose Polished \& Informed Candidate Scoring (PICK), a generation re-scoring framework that empowers models to generate faithful and relevant responses without requiring additional labeled data or model tuning. Through comprehensive automatic and human evaluations, we demonstrate the effectiveness of PICK in generating responses that are more faithful while keeping them relevant to the dialogue history. Furthermore, PICK consistently improves the system's performance with both oracle and retrieved knowledge in all decoding strategies. We provide the detailed implementation in https://github.com/bryanwilie/pick .
Speech emotion recognition plays a crucial role in human-computer interactions. However, most speech emotion recognition research is biased toward English-speaking adults, which hinders its applicability to other demographic groups in different languages and age groups. In this work, we analyze the transferability of emotion recognition across three different languages--English, Mandarin Chinese, and Cantonese; and 2 different age groups--adults and the elderly. To conduct the experiment, we develop an English-Mandarin speech emotion benchmark for adults and the elderly, BiMotion, and a Cantonese speech emotion dataset, YueMotion. This study concludes that different language and age groups require specific speech features, thus making cross-lingual inference an unsuitable method. However, cross-group data augmentation is still beneficial to regularize the model, with linguistic distance being a significant influence on cross-lingual transferability. We release publicly release our code at https://github.com/HLTCHKUST/elderly_ser.
Instruction-tuned large language models (LLMs) have shown remarkable generalization capability over multiple tasks in multiple languages. Nevertheless, their generalization towards different languages varies especially to underrepresented languages or even to unseen languages. Prior works on adapting new languages to LLMs find that naively adapting new languages to instruction-tuned LLMs will result in catastrophic forgetting, which in turn causes the loss of multitasking ability in these LLMs. To tackle this, we propose the Instruct-Align a.k.a (IA)$^1$ framework, which enables instruction-tuned LLMs to learn cross-lingual alignment between unseen and previously learned languages via alignment-based cross-lingual instruction-tuning. Our preliminary result on BLOOMZ-560M shows that (IA)$^1$ is able to learn a new language effectively with only a limited amount of parallel data and at the same time prevent catastrophic forgetting by applying continual instruction-tuning through experience replay. Our work contributes to the progression of language adaptation methods for instruction-tuned LLMs and opens up the possibility of adapting underrepresented low-resource languages into existing instruction-tuned LLMs. Our code will be publicly released upon acceptance.
Conversational models that are generative and open-domain are particularly susceptible to generating unsafe content since they are trained on web-based social data. Prior approaches to mitigating this issue have drawbacks, such as disrupting the flow of conversation, limited generalization to unseen toxic input contexts, and sacrificing the quality of the dialogue for the sake of safety. In this paper, we present a novel framework, named "LOT" (Learn NOT to), that employs a contrastive loss to enhance generalization by learning from both positive and negative training signals. Our approach differs from the standard contrastive learning framework in that it automatically obtains positive and negative signals from the safe and unsafe language distributions that have been learned beforehand. The LOT framework utilizes divergence to steer the generations away from the unsafe subspace and towards the safe subspace while sustaining the flow of conversation. Our approach is memory and time-efficient during decoding and effectively reduces toxicity while preserving engagingness and fluency. Empirical results indicate that LOT reduces toxicity by up to four-fold while achieving four to six-fold higher rates of engagingness and fluency compared to baseline models. Our findings are further corroborated by human evaluation.
This paper proposes a framework for quantitatively evaluating interactive LLMs such as ChatGPT using publicly available data sets. We carry out an extensive technical evaluation of ChatGPT using 23 data sets covering 8 different common NLP application tasks. We evaluate the multitask, multilingual and multi-modal aspects of ChatGPT based on these data sets and a newly designed multimodal dataset. We find that ChatGPT outperforms LLMs with zero-shot learning on most tasks and even outperforms fine-tuned models on some tasks. We find that it is better at understanding non-Latin script languages than generating them. It is able to generate multimodal content from textual prompts, via an intermediate code generation step. Moreover, we find that ChatGPT is 63.41% accurate on average in 10 different reasoning categories under logical reasoning, non-textual reasoning, and commonsense reasoning, hence making it an unreliable reasoner. It is, for example, better at deductive than inductive reasoning. ChatGPT suffers from hallucination problems like other LLMs and it generates more extrinsic hallucinations from its parametric memory as it does not have access to an external knowledge base. Finally, the interactive feature of ChatGPT enables human collaboration with the underlying LLM to improve its performance, i.e, 8% ROUGE-1 on summarization and 2% ChrF++ on machine translation, in a multi-turn "prompt engineering" fashion. We also release codebase for evaluation set extraction.
Generating a short story out of an image is arduous. Unlike image captioning, story generation from an image poses multiple challenges: preserving the story coherence, appropriately assessing the quality of the story, steering the generated story into a certain style, and addressing the scarcity of image-story pair reference datasets limiting supervision during training. In this work, we introduce Plug-and-Play Story Teller (PPST) and improve image-to-story generation by: 1) alleviating the data scarcity problem by incorporating large pre-trained models, namely CLIP and GPT-2, to facilitate a fluent image-to-text generation with minimal supervision, and 2) enabling a more style-relevant generation by incorporating stylistic adapters to control the story generation. We conduct image-to-story generation experiments with non-styled, romance-styled, and action-styled PPST approaches and compare our generated stories with those of previous work over three aspects, i.e., story coherence, image-story relevance, and style fitness, using both automatic and human evaluation. The results show that PPST improves story coherence and has better image-story relevance, but has yet to be adequately stylistic.
* Accepted in LaTeCH-CLfL 2022 (6th Joint SIGHUM Workshop on
Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities
and Literature), COLING 2022