In contrast to conventional visual question answering, video-grounded dialog necessitates a profound understanding of both dialog history and video content for accurate response generation. Despite commendable strides made by existing methodologies, they often grapple with the challenges of incrementally understanding intricate dialog histories and assimilating video information. In response to this gap, we present an iterative tracking and reasoning strategy that amalgamates a textual encoder, a visual encoder, and a generator. At its core, our textual encoder is fortified with a path tracking and aggregation mechanism, adept at gleaning nuances from dialog history that are pivotal to deciphering the posed questions. Concurrently, our visual encoder harnesses an iterative reasoning network, meticulously crafted to distill and emphasize critical visual markers from videos, enhancing the depth of visual comprehension. Culminating this enriched information, we employ the pre-trained GPT-2 model as our response generator, stitching together coherent and contextually apt answers. Our empirical assessments, conducted on two renowned datasets, testify to the prowess and adaptability of our proposed design.
Audiovisual data is everywhere in this digital age, which raises higher requirements for the deep learning models developed on them. To well handle the information of the multi-modal data is the key to a better audiovisual modal. We observe that these audiovisual data naturally have temporal attributes, such as the time information for each frame in the video. More concretely, such data is inherently multi-modal according to both audio and visual cues, which proceed in a strict chronological order. It indicates that temporal information is important in multi-modal acoustic event modeling for both intra- and inter-modal. However, existing methods deal with each modal feature independently and simply fuse them together, which neglects the mining of temporal relation and thus leads to sub-optimal performance. With this motivation, we propose a Temporal Multi-modal graph learning method for Acoustic event Classification, called TMac, by modeling such temporal information via graph learning techniques. In particular, we construct a temporal graph for each acoustic event, dividing its audio data and video data into multiple segments. Each segment can be considered as a node, and the temporal relationships between nodes can be considered as timestamps on their edges. In this case, we can smoothly capture the dynamic information in intra-modal and inter-modal. Several experiments are conducted to demonstrate TMac outperforms other SOTA models in performance. Our code is available at https://github.com/MGitHubL/TMac.
In this paper, we present a novel problem, namely video timeline modeling. Our objective is to create a video-associated timeline from a set of videos related to a specific topic, thereby facilitating the content and structure understanding of the story being told. This problem has significant potential in various real-world applications, such as news story summarization. To bootstrap research in this area, we curate a realistic benchmark dataset, YouTube-News-Timeline, consisting of over $12$k timelines and $300$k YouTube news videos. Additionally, we propose a set of quantitative metrics as the protocol to comprehensively evaluate and compare methodologies. With such a testbed, we further develop and benchmark exploratory deep learning approaches to tackle this problem. We anticipate that this exploratory work will pave the way for further research in video timeline modeling. The assets are available via https://github.com/google-research/google-research/tree/master/video_timeline_modeling.
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has emerged as a valuable diagnostic tool for cardiac diseases. However, a limitation of CMR is its slow imaging speed, which causes patient discomfort and introduces artifacts in the images. There has been growing interest in deep learning-based CMR imaging algorithms that can reconstruct high-quality images from highly under-sampled k-space data. However, the development of deep learning methods requires large training datasets, which have not been publicly available for CMR. To address this gap, we released a dataset that includes multi-contrast, multi-view, multi-slice and multi-coil CMR imaging data from 300 subjects. Imaging studies include cardiac cine and mapping sequences. Manual segmentations of the myocardium and chambers of all the subjects are also provided within the dataset. Scripts of state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms were also provided as a point of reference. Our aim is to facilitate the advancement of state-of-the-art CMR image reconstruction by introducing standardized evaluation criteria and making the dataset freely accessible to the research community. Researchers can access the dataset at https://www.synapse.org/#!Synapse:syn51471091/wiki/.
Sentiment analysis is a crucial task that aims to understand people's emotional states and predict emotional categories based on multimodal information. It consists of several subtasks, such as emotion recognition in conversation (ERC), aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA), and multimodal sentiment analysis (MSA). However, unifying all subtasks in sentiment analysis presents numerous challenges, including modality alignment, unified input/output forms, and dataset bias. To address these challenges, we propose a Task-Specific Prompt method to jointly model subtasks and introduce a multimodal generative framework called UniSA. Additionally, we organize the benchmark datasets of main subtasks into a new Sentiment Analysis Evaluation benchmark, SAEval. We design novel pre-training tasks and training methods to enable the model to learn generic sentiment knowledge among subtasks to improve the model's multimodal sentiment perception ability. Our experimental results show that UniSA performs comparably to the state-of-the-art on all subtasks and generalizes well to various subtasks in sentiment analysis.
Deep graph clustering, which aims to group nodes into disjoint clusters by neural networks in an unsupervised manner, has attracted great attention in recent years. Although the performance has been largely improved, the excellent performance of the existing methods heavily relies on an accurately predefined cluster number, which is not always available in the real-world scenario. To enable the deep graph clustering algorithms to work without the guidance of the predefined cluster number, we propose a new deep graph clustering method termed Reinforcement Graph Clustering (RGC). In our proposed method, cluster number determination and unsupervised representation learning are unified into a uniform framework by the reinforcement learning mechanism. Concretely, the discriminative node representations are first learned with the contrastive pretext task. Then, to capture the clustering state accurately with both local and global information in the graph, both node and cluster states are considered. Subsequently, at each state, the qualities of different cluster numbers are evaluated by the quality network, and the greedy action is executed to determine the cluster number. In order to conduct feedback actions, the clustering-oriented reward function is proposed to enhance the cohesion of the same clusters and separate the different clusters. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method. The source code of RGC is shared at https://github.com/yueliu1999/RGC and a collection (papers, codes and, datasets) of deep graph clustering is shared at https://github.com/yueliu1999/Awesome-Deep-Graph-Clustering on Github.
Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are fueling a new paradigm of discoveries in natural sciences. Today, AI has started to advance natural sciences by improving, accelerating, and enabling our understanding of natural phenomena at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, giving rise to a new area of research known as AI for science (AI4Science). Being an emerging research paradigm, AI4Science is unique in that it is an enormous and highly interdisciplinary area. Thus, a unified and technical treatment of this field is needed yet challenging. This paper aims to provide a technically thorough account of a subarea of AI4Science; namely, AI for quantum, atomistic, and continuum systems. These areas aim at understanding the physical world from the subatomic (wavefunctions and electron density), atomic (molecules, proteins, materials, and interactions), to macro (fluids, climate, and subsurface) scales and form an important subarea of AI4Science. A unique advantage of focusing on these areas is that they largely share a common set of challenges, thereby allowing a unified and foundational treatment. A key common challenge is how to capture physics first principles, especially symmetries, in natural systems by deep learning methods. We provide an in-depth yet intuitive account of techniques to achieve equivariance to symmetry transformations. We also discuss other common technical challenges, including explainability, out-of-distribution generalization, knowledge transfer with foundation and large language models, and uncertainty quantification. To facilitate learning and education, we provide categorized lists of resources that we found to be useful. We strive to be thorough and unified and hope this initial effort may trigger more community interests and efforts to further advance AI4Science.
Multimodal knowledge graphs (MKGs), which intuitively organize information in various modalities, can benefit multiple practical downstream tasks, such as recommendation systems, and visual question answering. However, most MKGs are still far from complete, which motivates the flourishing of MKG reasoning models. Recently, with the development of general artificial architectures, the pretrained transformer models have drawn increasing attention, especially for multimodal scenarios. However, the research of multimodal pretrained transformer (MPT) for knowledge graph reasoning (KGR) is still at an early stage. As the biggest difference between MKG and other multimodal data, the rich structural information underlying the MKG still cannot be fully leveraged in existing MPT models. Most of them only utilize the graph structure as a retrieval map for matching images and texts connected with the same entity. This manner hinders their reasoning performances. To this end, we propose the graph Structure Guided Multimodal Pretrained Transformer for knowledge graph reasoning, termed SGMPT. Specifically, the graph structure encoder is adopted for structural feature encoding. Then, a structure-guided fusion module with two different strategies, i.e., weighted summation and alignment constraint, is first designed to inject the structural information into both the textual and visual features. To the best of our knowledge, SGMPT is the first MPT model for multimodal KGR, which mines the structural information underlying the knowledge graph. Extensive experiments on FB15k-237-IMG and WN18-IMG, demonstrate that our SGMPT outperforms existing state-of-the-art models, and prove the effectiveness of the designed strategies.
Supervised machine learning approaches have been increasingly used in accelerating electronic structure prediction as surrogates of first-principle computational methods, such as density functional theory (DFT). While numerous quantum chemistry datasets focus on chemical properties and atomic forces, the ability to achieve accurate and efficient prediction of the Hamiltonian matrix is highly desired, as it is the most important and fundamental physical quantity that determines the quantum states of physical systems and chemical properties. In this work, we generate a new Quantum Hamiltonian dataset, named as QH9, to provide precise Hamiltonian matrices for 2,399 molecular dynamics trajectories and 130,831 stable molecular geometries, based on the QM9 dataset. By designing benchmark tasks with various molecules, we show that current machine learning models have the capacity to predict Hamiltonian matrices for arbitrary molecules. Both the QH9 dataset and the baseline models are provided to the community through an open-source benchmark, which can be highly valuable for developing machine learning methods and accelerating molecular and materials design for scientific and technological applications. Our benchmark is publicly available at https://github.com/divelab/AIRS/tree/main/OpenDFT/QHBench.