The prevalent use of Large Language Models (LLMs) has necessitated studying their mental models, yielding noteworthy theoretical and practical implications. Current research has demonstrated that state-of-the-art LLMs, such as ChatGPT, exhibit certain theory of mind capabilities and possess relatively stable Big Five and/or MBTI personality traits. In addition, cognitive process features form an essential component of these mental models. Research in cultural psychology indicated significant differences in the cognitive processes of Eastern and Western people when processing information and making judgments. While Westerners predominantly exhibit analytical thinking that isolates things from their environment to analyze their nature independently, Easterners often showcase holistic thinking, emphasizing relationships and adopting a global viewpoint. In our research, we probed the cultural cognitive traits of ChatGPT. We employed two scales that directly measure the cognitive process: the Analysis-Holism Scale (AHS) and the Triadic Categorization Task (TCT). Additionally, we used two scales that investigate the value differences shaped by cultural thinking: the Dialectical Self Scale (DSS) and the Self-construal Scale (SCS). In cognitive process tests (AHS/TCT), ChatGPT consistently tends towards Eastern holistic thinking, but regarding value judgments (DSS/SCS), ChatGPT does not significantly lean towards the East or the West. We suggest that the result could be attributed to both the training paradigm and the training data in LLM development. We discuss the potential value of this finding for AI research and directions for future research.
Multi-agent interactions, such as communication, teaching, and bluffing, often rely on higher-order social inference, i.e., understanding how others infer oneself. Such intricate reasoning can be effectively modeled through nested multi-agent reasoning. Nonetheless, the computational complexity escalates exponentially with each level of reasoning, posing a significant challenge. However, humans effortlessly perform complex social inferences as part of their daily lives. To bridge the gap between human-like inference capabilities and computational limitations, we propose a novel approach: leveraging neural networks to amortize high-order social inference, thereby expediting nested multi-agent reasoning. We evaluate our method in two challenging multi-agent interaction domains. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is computationally efficient while exhibiting minimal degradation in accuracy.
Policies often fail due to distribution shift -- changes in the state and reward that occur when a policy is deployed in new environments. Data augmentation can increase robustness by making the model invariant to task-irrelevant changes in the agent's observation. However, designers don't know which concepts are irrelevant a priori, especially when different end users have different preferences about how the task is performed. We propose an interactive framework to leverage feedback directly from the user to identify personalized task-irrelevant concepts. Our key idea is to generate counterfactual demonstrations that allow users to quickly identify possible task-relevant and irrelevant concepts. The knowledge of task-irrelevant concepts is then used to perform data augmentation and thus obtain a policy adapted to personalized user objectives. We present experiments validating our framework on discrete and continuous control tasks with real human users. Our method (1) enables users to better understand agent failure, (2) reduces the number of demonstrations required for fine-tuning, and (3) aligns the agent to individual user task preferences.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive planning abilities in single-agent embodied tasks across various domains. However, their capacity for planning and communication in multi-agent cooperation remains unclear, even though these are crucial skills for intelligent embodied agents. In this paper, we present a novel framework that utilizes LLMs for multi-agent cooperation and tests it in various embodied environments. Our framework enables embodied agents to plan, communicate, and cooperate with other embodied agents or humans to accomplish long-horizon tasks efficiently. We demonstrate that recent LLMs, such as GPT-4, can surpass strong planning-based methods and exhibit emergent effective communication using our framework without requiring fine-tuning or few-shot prompting. We also discover that LLM-based agents that communicate in natural language can earn more trust and cooperate more effectively with humans. Our research underscores the potential of LLMs for embodied AI and lays the foundation for future research in multi-agent cooperation. Videos can be found on the project website https://vis-www.cs.umass.edu/Co-LLM-Agents/.
While large language models (LMs) have shown remarkable capabilities across numerous tasks, they often struggle with simple reasoning and planning in physical environments, such as understanding object permanence or planning household activities. The limitation arises from the fact that LMs are trained only on written text and miss essential embodied knowledge and skills. In this paper, we propose a new paradigm of enhancing LMs by finetuning them with world models, to gain diverse embodied knowledge while retaining their general language capabilities. Our approach deploys an embodied agent in a world model, particularly a simulator of the physical world (VirtualHome), and acquires a diverse set of embodied experiences through both goal-oriented planning and random exploration. These experiences are then used to finetune LMs to teach diverse abilities of reasoning and acting in the physical world, e.g., planning and completing goals, object permanence and tracking, etc. Moreover, it is desirable to preserve the generality of LMs during finetuning, which facilitates generalizing the embodied knowledge across tasks rather than being tied to specific simulations. We thus further introduce the classical elastic weight consolidation (EWC) for selective weight updates, combined with low-rank adapters (LoRA) for training efficiency. Extensive experiments show our approach substantially improves base LMs on 18 downstream tasks by 64.28% on average. In particular, the small LMs (1.3B and 6B) enhanced by our approach match or even outperform much larger LMs (e.g., ChatGPT).
In this work, we study how to build socially intelligent robots to assist people in their homes. In particular, we focus on assistance with online goal inference, where robots must simultaneously infer humans' goals and how to help them achieve those goals. Prior assistance methods either lack the adaptivity to adjust helping strategies (i.e., when and how to help) in response to uncertainty about goals or the scalability to conduct fast inference in a large goal space. Our NOPA (Neurally-guided Online Probabilistic Assistance) method addresses both of these challenges. NOPA consists of (1) an online goal inference module combining neural goal proposals with inverse planning and particle filtering for robust inference under uncertainty, and (2) a helping planner that discovers valuable subgoals to help with and is aware of the uncertainty in goal inference. We compare NOPA against multiple baselines in a new embodied AI assistance challenge: Online Watch-And-Help, in which a helper agent needs to simultaneously watch a main agent's action, infer its goal, and help perform a common household task faster in realistic virtual home environments. Experiments show that our helper agent robustly updates its goal inference and adapts its helping plans to the changing level of uncertainty.
In this work, we consider one-shot imitation learning for object rearrangement tasks, where an AI agent needs to watch a single expert demonstration and learn to perform the same task in different environments. To achieve a strong generalization, the AI agent must infer the spatial goal specification for the task. However, there can be multiple goal specifications that fit the given demonstration. To address this, we propose a reward learning approach, Graph-based Equivalence Mappings (GEM), that can discover spatial goal representations that are aligned with the intended goal specification, enabling successful generalization in unseen environments. Specifically, GEM represents a spatial goal specification by a reward function conditioned on i) a graph indicating important spatial relationships between objects and ii) state equivalence mappings for each edge in the graph indicating invariant properties of the corresponding relationship. GEM combines inverse reinforcement learning and active reward learning to efficiently improve the reward function by utilizing the graph structure and domain randomization enabled by the equivalence mappings. We conducted experiments with simulated oracles and with human subjects. The results show that GEM can drastically improve the generalizability of the learned goal representations over strong baselines.
In cooperative multi-agent reinforcement learning, a team of agents works together to achieve a common goal. Different environments or tasks may require varying degrees of coordination among agents in order to achieve the goal in an optimal way. The nature of coordination will depend on properties of the environment -- its spatial layout, distribution of obstacles, dynamics, etc. We term this variation of properties within an environment as heterogeneity. Existing literature has not sufficiently addressed the fact that different environments may have different levels of heterogeneity. We formalize the notions of coordination level and heterogeneity level of an environment and present HECOGrid, a suite of multi-agent RL environments that facilitates empirical evaluation of different MARL approaches across different levels of coordination and environmental heterogeneity by providing a quantitative control over coordination and heterogeneity levels of the environment. Further, we propose a Centralized Training Decentralized Execution learning approach called Stateful Active Facilitator (SAF) that enables agents to work efficiently in high-coordination and high-heterogeneity environments through a differentiable and shared knowledge source used during training and dynamic selection from a shared pool of policies. We evaluate SAF and compare its performance against baselines IPPO and MAPPO on HECOGrid. Our results show that SAF consistently outperforms the baselines across different tasks and different heterogeneity and coordination levels.
In Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL), specialized channels are often introduced that allow agents to communicate directly with one another. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach whereby agents communicate through an intelligent facilitator that learns to sift through and interpret signals provided by all agents to improve the agents' collective performance. To ensure that this facilitator does not become a centralized controller, agents are incentivized to reduce their dependence on the messages it conveys, and the messages can only influence the selection of a policy from a fixed set, not instantaneous actions given the policy. We demonstrate the strength of this architecture over existing baselines on several cooperative MARL environments.