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Adrian Weller

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Certification of Distributional Individual Fairness

Nov 20, 2023
Matthew Wicker, Vihari Piratia, Adrian Weller

Providing formal guarantees of algorithmic fairness is of paramount importance to socially responsible deployment of machine learning algorithms. In this work, we study formal guarantees, i.e., certificates, for individual fairness (IF) of neural networks. We start by introducing a novel convex approximation of IF constraints that exponentially decreases the computational cost of providing formal guarantees of local individual fairness. We highlight that prior methods are constrained by their focus on global IF certification and can therefore only scale to models with a few dozen hidden neurons, thus limiting their practical impact. We propose to certify distributional individual fairness which ensures that for a given empirical distribution and all distributions within a $\gamma$-Wasserstein ball, the neural network has guaranteed individually fair predictions. Leveraging developments in quasi-convex optimization, we provide novel and efficient certified bounds on distributional individual fairness and show that our method allows us to certify and regularize neural networks that are several orders of magnitude larger than those considered by prior works. Moreover, we study real-world distribution shifts and find our bounds to be a scalable, practical, and sound source of IF guarantees.

* 21 Pages, Neural Information Processing Systems 2023 
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Parameter-Efficient Orthogonal Finetuning via Butterfly Factorization

Nov 10, 2023
Weiyang Liu, Zeju Qiu, Yao Feng, Yuliang Xiu, Yuxuan Xue, Longhui Yu, Haiwen Feng, Zhen Liu, Juyeon Heo, Songyou Peng, Yandong Wen, Michael J. Black, Adrian Weller, Bernhard Schölkopf

Large foundation models are becoming ubiquitous, but training them from scratch is prohibitively expensive. Thus, efficiently adapting these powerful models to downstream tasks is increasingly important. In this paper, we study a principled finetuning paradigm -- Orthogonal Finetuning (OFT) -- for downstream task adaptation. Despite demonstrating good generalizability, OFT still uses a fairly large number of trainable parameters due to the high dimensionality of orthogonal matrices. To address this, we start by examining OFT from an information transmission perspective, and then identify a few key desiderata that enable better parameter-efficiency. Inspired by how the Cooley-Tukey fast Fourier transform algorithm enables efficient information transmission, we propose an efficient orthogonal parameterization using butterfly structures. We apply this parameterization to OFT, creating a novel parameter-efficient finetuning method, called Orthogonal Butterfly (BOFT). By subsuming OFT as a special case, BOFT introduces a generalized orthogonal finetuning framework. Finally, we conduct an extensive empirical study of adapting large vision transformers, large language models, and text-to-image diffusion models to various downstream tasks in vision and language.

* Technical Report (33 pages, 18 figures) 
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Getting aligned on representational alignment

Nov 02, 2023
Ilia Sucholutsky, Lukas Muttenthaler, Adrian Weller, Andi Peng, Andreea Bobu, Been Kim, Bradley C. Love, Erin Grant, Iris Groen, Jascha Achterberg, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Katherine M. Collins, Katherine L. Hermann, Kerem Oktar, Klaus Greff, Martin N. Hebart, Nori Jacoby, Qiuyi Zhang, Raja Marjieh, Robert Geirhos, Sherol Chen, Simon Kornblith, Sunayana Rane, Talia Konkle, Thomas P. O'Connell, Thomas Unterthiner, Andrew K. Lampinen, Klaus-Robert Müller, Mariya Toneva, Thomas L. Griffiths

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Biological and artificial information processing systems form representations that they can use to categorize, reason, plan, navigate, and make decisions. How can we measure the extent to which the representations formed by these diverse systems agree? Do similarities in representations then translate into similar behavior? How can a system's representations be modified to better match those of another system? These questions pertaining to the study of representational alignment are at the heart of some of the most active research areas in cognitive science, neuroscience, and machine learning. For example, cognitive scientists measure the representational alignment of multiple individuals to identify shared cognitive priors, neuroscientists align fMRI responses from multiple individuals into a shared representational space for group-level analyses, and ML researchers distill knowledge from teacher models into student models by increasing their alignment. Unfortunately, there is limited knowledge transfer between research communities interested in representational alignment, so progress in one field often ends up being rediscovered independently in another. Thus, greater cross-field communication would be advantageous. To improve communication between these fields, we propose a unifying framework that can serve as a common language between researchers studying representational alignment. We survey the literature from all three fields and demonstrate how prior work fits into this framework. Finally, we lay out open problems in representational alignment where progress can benefit all three of these fields. We hope that our work can catalyze cross-disciplinary collaboration and accelerate progress for all communities studying and developing information processing systems. We note that this is a working paper and encourage readers to reach out with their suggestions for future revisions.

* Working paper, changes to be made in upcoming revisions 
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Amortised Inference in Neural Networks for Small-Scale Probabilistic Meta-Learning

Oct 24, 2023
Matthew Ashman, Tommy Rochussen, Adrian Weller

The global inducing point variational approximation for BNNs is based on using a set of inducing inputs to construct a series of conditional distributions that accurately approximate the conditionals of the true posterior distribution. Our key insight is that these inducing inputs can be replaced by the actual data, such that the variational distribution consists of a set of approximate likelihoods for each datapoint. This structure lends itself to amortised inference, in which the parameters of each approximate likelihood are obtained by passing each datapoint through a meta-model known as the inference network. By training this inference network across related datasets, we can meta-learn Bayesian inference over task-specific BNNs.

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AI for Mathematics: A Cognitive Science Perspective

Oct 19, 2023
Cedegao E. Zhang, Katherine M. Collins, Adrian Weller, Joshua B. Tenenbaum

Mathematics is one of the most powerful conceptual systems developed and used by the human species. Dreams of automated mathematicians have a storied history in artificial intelligence (AI). Rapid progress in AI, particularly propelled by advances in large language models (LLMs), has sparked renewed, widespread interest in building such systems. In this work, we reflect on these goals from a \textit{cognitive science} perspective. We call attention to several classical and ongoing research directions from cognitive science, which we believe are valuable for AI practitioners to consider when seeking to build truly human (or superhuman)-level mathematical systems. We close with open discussions and questions that we believe necessitate a multi-disciplinary perspective -- cognitive scientists working in tandem with AI researchers and mathematicians -- as we move toward better mathematical AI systems which not only help us push the frontier of the mathematics, but also offer glimpses into how we as humans are even capable of such great cognitive feats.

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Pairwise Similarity Learning is SimPLE

Oct 13, 2023
Yandong Wen, Weiyang Liu, Yao Feng, Bhiksha Raj, Rita Singh, Adrian Weller, Michael J. Black, Bernhard Schölkopf

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In this paper, we focus on a general yet important learning problem, pairwise similarity learning (PSL). PSL subsumes a wide range of important applications, such as open-set face recognition, speaker verification, image retrieval and person re-identification. The goal of PSL is to learn a pairwise similarity function assigning a higher similarity score to positive pairs (i.e., a pair of samples with the same label) than to negative pairs (i.e., a pair of samples with different label). We start by identifying a key desideratum for PSL, and then discuss how existing methods can achieve this desideratum. We then propose a surprisingly simple proxy-free method, called SimPLE, which requires neither feature/proxy normalization nor angular margin and yet is able to generalize well in open-set recognition. We apply the proposed method to three challenging PSL tasks: open-set face recognition, image retrieval and speaker verification. Comprehensive experimental results on large-scale benchmarks show that our method performs significantly better than current state-of-the-art methods.

* Published in ICCV 2023 (Project page: 
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Universal Graph Random Features

Oct 10, 2023
Isaac Reid, Krzysztof Choromanski, Eli Berger, Adrian Weller

We propose a novel random walk-based algorithm for unbiased estimation of arbitrary functions of a weighted adjacency matrix, coined universal graph random features (u-GRFs). This includes many of the most popular examples of kernels defined on the nodes of a graph. Our algorithm enjoys subquadratic time complexity with respect to the number of nodes, overcoming the notoriously prohibitive cubic scaling of exact graph kernel evaluation. It can also be trivially distributed across machines, permitting learning on much larger networks. At the heart of the algorithm is a modulation function which upweights or downweights the contribution from different random walks depending on their lengths. We show that by parameterising it with a neural network we can obtain u-GRFs that give higher-quality kernel estimates or perform efficient, scalable kernel learning. We provide robust theoretical analysis and support our findings with experiments including pointwise estimation of fixed graph kernels, solving non-homogeneous graph ordinary differential equations, node clustering and kernel regression on triangular meshes.

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Repelling Random Walks

Oct 07, 2023
Isaac Reid, Eli Berger, Krzysztof Choromanski, Adrian Weller

We present a novel quasi-Monte Carlo mechanism to improve graph-based sampling, coined repelling random walks. By inducing correlations between the trajectories of an interacting ensemble such that their marginal transition probabilities are unmodified, we are able to explore the graph more efficiently, improving the concentration of statistical estimators whilst leaving them unbiased. The mechanism has a trivial drop-in implementation. We showcase the effectiveness of repelling random walks in a range of settings including estimation of graph kernels, the PageRank vector and graphlet concentrations. We provide detailed experimental evaluation and robust theoretical guarantees. To our knowledge, repelling random walks constitute the first rigorously studied quasi-Monte Carlo scheme correlating the directions of walkers on a graph, inviting new research in this exciting nascent domain.

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Learning to Receive Help: Intervention-Aware Concept Embedding Models

Sep 29, 2023
Mateo Espinosa Zarlenga, Katherine M. Collins, Krishnamurthy Dvijotham, Adrian Weller, Zohreh Shams, Mateja Jamnik

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Concept Bottleneck Models (CBMs) tackle the opacity of neural architectures by constructing and explaining their predictions using a set of high-level concepts. A special property of these models is that they permit concept interventions, wherein users can correct mispredicted concepts and thus improve the model's performance. Recent work, however, has shown that intervention efficacy can be highly dependent on the order in which concepts are intervened on and on the model's architecture and training hyperparameters. We argue that this is rooted in a CBM's lack of train-time incentives for the model to be appropriately receptive to concept interventions. To address this, we propose Intervention-aware Concept Embedding models (IntCEMs), a novel CBM-based architecture and training paradigm that improves a model's receptiveness to test-time interventions. Our model learns a concept intervention policy in an end-to-end fashion from where it can sample meaningful intervention trajectories at train-time. This conditions IntCEMs to effectively select and receive concept interventions when deployed at test-time. Our experiments show that IntCEMs significantly outperform state-of-the-art concept-interpretable models when provided with test-time concept interventions, demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach.

* Accepted as a spotlight at the Thirty-seventh Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2023) 
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