Although the pre-training followed by fine-tuning paradigm is used extensively in many fields, there is still some controversy surrounding the impact of pre-training on the fine-tuning process. Currently, experimental findings based on text and image data lack consensus. To delve deeper into the unsupervised pre-training followed by fine-tuning paradigm, we have extended previous research to a new modality: time series. In this study, we conducted a thorough examination of 150 classification datasets derived from the Univariate Time Series (UTS) and Multivariate Time Series (MTS) benchmarks. Our analysis reveals several key conclusions. (i) Pre-training can only help improve the optimization process for models that fit the data poorly, rather than those that fit the data well. (ii) Pre-training does not exhibit the effect of regularization when given sufficient training time. (iii) Pre-training can only speed up convergence if the model has sufficient ability to fit the data. (iv) Adding more pre-training data does not improve generalization, but it can strengthen the advantage of pre-training on the original data volume, such as faster convergence. (v) While both the pre-training task and the model structure determine the effectiveness of the paradigm on a given dataset, the model structure plays a more significant role.
In recent years, 3D representation learning has turned to 2D vision-language pre-trained models to overcome data scarcity challenges. However, existing methods simply transfer 2D alignment strategies, aligning 3D representations with single-view 2D images and coarse-grained parent category text. These approaches introduce information degradation and insufficient synergy issues, leading to performance loss. Information degradation arises from overlooking the fact that a 3D representation should be equivalent to a series of multi-view images and more fine-grained subcategory text. Insufficient synergy neglects the idea that a robust 3D representation should align with the joint vision-language space, rather than independently aligning with each modality. In this paper, we propose a multi-view joint modality modeling approach, termed JM3D, to obtain a unified representation for point cloud, text, and image. Specifically, a novel Structured Multimodal Organizer (SMO) is proposed to address the information degradation issue, which introduces contiguous multi-view images and hierarchical text to enrich the representation of vision and language modalities. A Joint Multi-modal Alignment (JMA) is designed to tackle the insufficient synergy problem, which models the joint modality by incorporating language knowledge into the visual modality. Extensive experiments on ModelNet40 and ScanObjectNN demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method, JM3D, which achieves state-of-the-art performance in zero-shot 3D classification. JM3D outperforms ULIP by approximately 4.3% on PointMLP and achieves an improvement of up to 6.5% accuracy on PointNet++ in top-1 accuracy for zero-shot 3D classification on ModelNet40. The source code and trained models for all our experiments are publicly available at https://github.com/Mr-Neko/JM3D.
We investigate the problem of learning with noisy labels in real-world annotation scenarios, where noise can be categorized into two types: factual noise and ambiguity noise. To better distinguish these noise types and utilize their semantics, we propose a novel sample selection-based approach for noisy label learning, called Proto-semi. Proto-semi initially divides all samples into the confident and unconfident datasets via warm-up. By leveraging the confident dataset, prototype vectors are constructed to capture class characteristics. Subsequently, the distances between the unconfident samples and the prototype vectors are calculated to facilitate noise classification. Based on these distances, the labels are either corrected or retained, resulting in the refinement of the confident and unconfident datasets. Finally, we introduce a semi-supervised learning method to enhance training. Empirical evaluations on a real-world annotated dataset substantiate the robustness of Proto-semi in handling the problem of learning from noisy labels. Meanwhile, the prototype-based repartitioning strategy is shown to be effective in mitigating the adverse impact of label noise. Our code and data are available at https://github.com/fuxiAIlab/ProtoSemi.
In recent years, data-driven reinforcement learning (RL), also known as offline RL, have gained significant attention. However, the role of data sampling techniques in offline RL has been overlooked despite its potential to enhance online RL performance. Recent research suggests applying sampling techniques directly to state-transitions does not consistently improve performance in offline RL. Therefore, in this study, we propose a memory technique, (Prioritized) Trajectory Replay (TR/PTR), which extends the sampling perspective to trajectories for more comprehensive information extraction from limited data. TR enhances learning efficiency by backward sampling of trajectories that optimizes the use of subsequent state information. Building on TR, we build the weighted critic target to avoid sampling unseen actions in offline training, and Prioritized Trajectory Replay (PTR) that enables more efficient trajectory sampling, prioritized by various trajectory priority metrics. We demonstrate the benefits of integrating TR and PTR with existing offline RL algorithms on D4RL. In summary, our research emphasizes the significance of trajectory-based data sampling techniques in enhancing the efficiency and performance of offline RL algorithms.
This work proposes a novel face-swapping framework FlowFace++, utilizing explicit semantic flow supervision and end-to-end architecture to facilitate shape-aware face-swapping. Specifically, our work pretrains a facial shape discriminator to supervise the face swapping network. The discriminator is shape-aware and relies on a semantic flow-guided operation to explicitly calculate the shape discrepancies between the target and source faces, thus optimizing the face swapping network to generate highly realistic results. The face swapping network is a stack of a pre-trained face-masked autoencoder (MAE), a cross-attention fusion module, and a convolutional decoder. The MAE provides a fine-grained facial image representation space, which is unified for the target and source faces and thus facilitates final realistic results. The cross-attention fusion module carries out the source-to-target face swapping in a fine-grained latent space while preserving other attributes of the target image (e.g. expression, head pose, hair, background, illumination, etc). Lastly, the convolutional decoder further synthesizes the swapping results according to the face-swapping latent embedding from the cross-attention fusion module. Extensive quantitative and qualitative experiments on in-the-wild faces demonstrate that our FlowFace++ outperforms the state-of-the-art significantly, particularly while the source face is obstructed by uneven lighting or angle offset.
Large-scale vision-language pre-training has shown promising advances on various downstream tasks and achieved significant performance in multi-modal understanding and generation tasks. However, existing methods often perform poorly on image-text matching tasks that require a detailed semantics understanding of the text. Although there have been some works on this problem, they do not sufficiently exploit the structural knowledge present in sentences to enhance multi-modal language representations, which leads to poor performance. In this paper, we present an end-to-end framework Structure-CLIP, which integrates latent detailed semantics from the text to enhance fine-grained semantic representations. Specifically, (1) we use scene graphs in order to pay more attention to the detailed semantic learning in the text and fully explore structured knowledge between fine-grained semantics, and (2) we utilize the knowledge-enhanced framework with the help of the scene graph to make full use of representations of structured knowledge. To verify the effectiveness of our proposed method, we pre-trained our models with the aforementioned approach and conduct experiments on different downstream tasks. Numerical results show that Structure-CLIP can often achieve state-of-the-art performance on both VG-Attribution and VG-Relation datasets. Extensive experiments show its components are effective and its predictions are interpretable, which proves that our proposed method can enhance detailed semantic representation well.
In order to produce facial-expression-specified talking head videos, previous audio-driven one-shot talking head methods need to use a reference video with a matching speaking style (i.e., facial expressions). However, finding videos with a desired style may not be easy, potentially restricting their application. In this work, we propose an expression-controllable one-shot talking head method, dubbed TalkCLIP, where the expression in a speech is specified by the natural language. This would significantly ease the difficulty of searching for a video with a desired speaking style. Here, we first construct a text-video paired talking head dataset, in which each video has alternative prompt-alike descriptions. Specifically, our descriptions involve coarse-level emotion annotations and facial action unit (AU) based fine-grained annotations. Then, we introduce a CLIP-based style encoder that first projects natural language descriptions to the CLIP text embedding space and then aligns the textual embeddings to the representations of speaking styles. As extensive textual knowledge has been encoded by CLIP, our method can even generalize to infer a speaking style whose description has not been seen during training. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method achieves the advanced capability of generating photo-realistic talking heads with vivid facial expressions guided by text descriptions.
To facilitate research in the direction of fine-tuning foundation models from human feedback, we held the MineRL BASALT Competition on Fine-Tuning from Human Feedback at NeurIPS 2022. The BASALT challenge asks teams to compete to develop algorithms to solve tasks with hard-to-specify reward functions in Minecraft. Through this competition, we aimed to promote the development of algorithms that use human feedback as channels to learn the desired behavior. We describe the competition and provide an overview of the top solutions. We conclude by discussing the impact of the competition and future directions for improvement.
For few-shot learning, it is still a critical challenge to realize photo-realistic face visually dubbing on high-resolution videos. Previous works fail to generate high-fidelity dubbing results. To address the above problem, this paper proposes a Deformation Inpainting Network (DINet) for high-resolution face visually dubbing. Different from previous works relying on multiple up-sample layers to directly generate pixels from latent embeddings, DINet performs spatial deformation on feature maps of reference images to better preserve high-frequency textural details. Specifically, DINet consists of one deformation part and one inpainting part. In the first part, five reference facial images adaptively perform spatial deformation to create deformed feature maps encoding mouth shapes at each frame, in order to align with the input driving audio and also the head poses of the input source images. In the second part, to produce face visually dubbing, a feature decoder is responsible for adaptively incorporating mouth movements from the deformed feature maps and other attributes (i.e., head pose and upper facial expression) from the source feature maps together. Finally, DINet achieves face visually dubbing with rich textural details. We conduct qualitative and quantitative comparisons to validate our DINet on high-resolution videos. The experimental results show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art works.