Technique of emotion recognition enables computers to classify human affective states into discrete categories. However, the emotion may fluctuate instead of maintaining a stable state even within a short time interval. There is also a difficulty to take the full use of the EEG spatial distribution due to its 3-D topology structure. To tackle the above issues, we proposed a locally temporal-spatial pattern learning graph attention network (LTS-GAT) in the present study. In the LTS-GAT, a divide-and-conquer scheme was used to examine local information on temporal and spatial dimensions of EEG patterns based on the graph attention mechanism. A dynamical domain discriminator was added to improve the robustness against inter-individual variations of the EEG statistics to learn robust EEG feature representations across different participants. We evaluated the LTS-GAT on two public datasets for affective computing studies under individual-dependent and independent paradigms. The effectiveness of LTS-GAT model was demonstrated when compared to other existing mainstream methods. Moreover, visualization methods were used to illustrate the relations of different brain regions and emotion recognition. Meanwhile, the weights of different time segments were also visualized to investigate emotion sparsity problems.
The Intelligent decision of the unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) has long been a challenging problem. The conventional search method can hardly satisfy the real-time demand during high dynamics air combat scenarios. The reinforcement learning (RL) method can significantly shorten the decision time via using neural networks. However, the sparse reward problem limits its convergence speed and the artificial prior experience reward can easily deviate its optimal convergent direction of the original task, which raises great difficulties for the RL air combat application. In this paper, we propose a homotopy-based soft actor-critic method (HSAC) which focuses on addressing these problems via following the homotopy path between the original task with sparse reward and the auxiliary task with artificial prior experience reward. The convergence and the feasibility of this method are also proved in this paper. To confirm our method feasibly, we construct a detailed 3D air combat simulation environment for the RL-based methods training firstly, and we implement our method in both the attack horizontal flight UCAV task and the self-play confrontation task. Experimental results show that our method performs better than the methods only utilizing the sparse reward or the artificial prior experience reward. The agent trained by our method can reach more than 98.3% win rate in the attack horizontal flight UCAV task and average 67.4% win rate when confronted with the agents trained by the other two methods.
Easy-to-use programming interfaces paired with cloud-scale processing engines have enabled big data system users to author arbitrarily complex analytical jobs over massive volumes of data. However, as the complexity and scale of analytical jobs increase, they encounter a number of unforeseen problems, hotspots with large intermediate data on temporary storage, longer job recovery time after failures, and worse query optimizer estimates being examples of issues that we are facing at Microsoft. To address these issues, we propose Phoebe, an efficient learning-based checkpoint optimizer. Given a set of constraints and an objective function at compile-time, Phoebe is able to determine the decomposition of job plans, and the optimal set of checkpoints to preserve their outputs to durable global storage. Phoebe consists of three machine learning predictors and one optimization module. For each stage of a job, Phoebe makes accurate predictions for: (1) the execution time, (2) the output size, and (3) the start/end time taking into account the inter-stage dependencies. Using these predictions, we formulate checkpoint optimization as an integer programming problem and propose a scalable heuristic algorithm that meets the latency requirement of the production environment. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Phoebe in production workloads, and show that we can free the temporary storage on hotspots by more than 70% and restart failed jobs 68% faster on average with minimum performance impact. Phoebe also illustrates that adding multiple sets of checkpoints is not cost-efficient, which dramatically reduces the complexity of the optimization.
Microsoft Azure is dedicated to guarantee high quality of service to its customers, in particular, during periods of high customer activity, while controlling cost. We employ a Data Science (DS) driven solution to predict user load and leverage these predictions to optimize resource allocation. To this end, we built the Seagull infrastructure that processes per-server telemetry, validates the data, trains and deploys ML models. The models are used to predict customer load per server (24h into the future), and optimize service operations. Seagull continually re-evaluates accuracy of predictions, fallback to previously known good models and triggers alerts as appropriate. We deployed this infrastructure in production for PostgreSQL and MySQL servers across all Azure regions, and applied it to the problem of scheduling server backups during low-load time. This minimizes interference with user-induced load and improves customer experience.
Developing modern systems software is a complex task that combines business logic programming and Software Performance Engineering (SPE). The later is an experimental and labor-intensive activity focused on optimizing the system for a given hardware, software, and workload (hw/sw/wl) context. Today's SPE is performed during build/release phases by specialized teams, and cursed by: 1) lack of standardized and automated tools, 2) significant repeated work as hw/sw/wl context changes, 3) fragility induced by a "one-size-fit-all" tuning (where improvements on one workload or component may impact others). The net result: despite costly investments, system software is often outside its optimal operating point - anecdotally leaving 30% to 40% of performance on the table. The recent developments in Data Science (DS) hints at an opportunity: combining DS tooling and methodologies with a new developer experience to transform the practice of SPE. In this paper we present: MLOS, an ML-powered infrastructure and methodology to democratize and automate Software Performance Engineering. MLOS enables continuous, instance-level, robust, and trackable systems optimization. MLOS is being developed and employed within Microsoft to optimize SQL Server performance. Early results indicated that component-level optimizations can lead to 20%-90% improvements when custom-tuning for a specific hw/sw/wl, hinting at a significant opportunity. However, several research challenges remain that will require community involvement. To this end, we are in the process of open-sourcing the MLOS core infrastructure, and we are engaging with academic institutions to create an educational program around Software 2.0 and MLOS ideas.
The recent success of machine learning (ML) has led to an explosive growth both in terms of new systems and algorithms built in industry and academia, and new applications built by an ever-growing community of data science (DS) practitioners. This quickly shifting panorama of technologies and applications is challenging for builders and practitioners alike to follow. In this paper, we set out to capture this panorama through a wide-angle lens, by performing the largest analysis of DS projects to date, focusing on questions that can help determine investments on either side. Specifically, we download and analyze: (a) over 6M Python notebooks publicly available on GITHUB, (b) over 2M enterprise DS pipelines developed within COMPANYX, and (c) the source code and metadata of over 900 releases from 12 important DS libraries. The analysis we perform ranges from coarse-grained statistical characterizations to analysis of library imports, pipelines, and comparative studies across datasets and time. We report a large number of measurements for our readers to interpret, and dare to draw a few (actionable, yet subjective) conclusions on (a) what systems builders should focus on to better serve practitioners, and (b) what technologies should practitioners bet on given current trends. We plan to automate this analysis and release associated tools and results periodically.
Machine learning (ML) has proven itself in high-value web applications such as search ranking and is emerging as a powerful tool in a much broader range of enterprise scenarios including voice recognition and conversational understanding for customer support, autotuning for videoconferencing, inteligent feedback loops in largescale sysops, manufacturing and autonomous vehicle management, complex financial predictions, just to name a few. Meanwhile, as the value of data is increasingly recognized and monetized, concerns about securing valuable data and risks to individual privacy have been growing. Consequently, rigorous data management has emerged as a key requirement in enterprise settings. How will these trends (ML growing popularity, and stricter data governance) intersect? What are the unmet requirements for applying ML in enterprise settings? What are the technical challenges for the DB community to solve? In this paper, we present our vision of how ML and database systems are likely to come together, and early steps we take towards making this vision a reality.
Microsoft's internal big data analytics platform is comprised of hundreds of thousands of machines, serving over half a million jobs daily, from thousands of users. The majority of these jobs are recurring and are crucial for the company's operation. Although administrators spend significant effort tuning system performance, some jobs inevitably experience slowdowns, i.e., their execution time degrades over previous runs. Currently, the investigation of such slowdowns is a labor-intensive and error-prone process, which costs Microsoft significant human and machine resources, and negatively impacts several lines of businesses. In this work, we present Griffin, a system we built and have deployed in production last year to automatically discover the root cause of job slowdowns. Existing solutions either rely on labeled data (i.e., resolved incidents with labeled reasons for job slowdowns), which is in most cases non-existent or non-trivial to acquire, or on time-series analysis of individual metrics that do not target specific jobs holistically. In contrast, in Griffin we cast the problem to a corresponding regression one that predicts the runtime of a job, and show how the relative contributions of the features used to train our interpretable model can be exploited to rank the potential causes of job slowdowns. Evaluated over historical incidents, we show that Griffin discovers slowdown causes that are consistent with the ones validated by domain-expert engineers, in a fraction of the time required by them.
Machine Learning is transitioning from an art and science into a technology available to every developer. In the near future, every application on every platform will incorporate trained models to encode data-based decisions that would be impossible for developers to author. This presents a significant engineering challenge, since currently data science and modeling are largely decoupled from standard software development processes. This separation makes incorporating machine learning capabilities inside applications unnecessarily costly and difficult, and furthermore discourage developers from embracing ML in first place. In this paper we present ML .NET, a framework developed at Microsoft over the last decade in response to the challenge of making it easy to ship machine learning models in large software applications. We present its architecture, and illuminate the application demands that shaped it. Specifically, we introduce DataView, the core data abstraction of ML .NET which allows it to capture full predictive pipelines efficiently and consistently across training and inference lifecycles. We close the paper with a surprisingly favorable performance study of ML .NET compared to more recent entrants, and a discussion of some lessons learned.