Prepending model inputs with safety prompts is a common practice of safeguarding large language models (LLMs) from complying with queries that contain harmful intents. However, the working mechanisms of safety prompts have not yet been fully understood, which hinders the potential for automatically optimizing them for improved LLM safety. Motivated by this problem, we investigate the impact of safety prompts from the perspective of model representations. We find that in models' representation space, harmful and harmless queries can be largely distinguished, but this is not noticeably enhanced by safety prompts. Instead, the queries' representations are moved by different safety prompts in similar directions, where models become more prone to refusal (i.e., refusing to provide assistance) even when the queries are harmless. Inspired by these findings, we propose a method called DRO (Directed Representation Optimization) for automatic safety prompt optimization. DRO treats safety prompts as continuous, trainable embeddings and learns to move the representations of harmful/harmless queries along/opposite the direction in which the model's refusal probability increases. We demonstrate that DRO remarkably improves the safeguarding performance of human-crafted safety prompts and outperforms strong baselines, as evaluated on out-of-domain benchmarks, without compromising the general model capability.
Multi-choice questions (MCQs) serve as a common yet important task format in the research of large language models (LLMs). Our work shows that LLMs exhibit an inherent "selection bias" in MCQs, which refers to LLMs' preferences to select options located at specific positions (like "Option C"). This bias is prevalent across various LLMs, making their performance vulnerable to option position changes in MCQs. We identify that one primary cause resulting in selection bias is option numbering, i.e., the ID symbols A/B/C/D associated with the options. To mitigate selection bias, we propose a new method called PriDe. PriDe first decomposes the observed model prediction distribution into an intrinsic prediction over option contents and a prior distribution over option IDs. It then estimates the prior by permutating option contents on a small number of test samples, which is used to debias the subsequent test samples. We demonstrate that, as a label-free, inference-time method, PriDe achieves a more effective and computation-efficient debiasing than strong baselines. We further show that the priors estimated by PriDe generalize well across different domains, highlighting its practical potential in broader scenarios.
It has always been an important yet challenging problem to control language models to avoid generating texts with undesirable attributes, such as toxic language and unnatural repetition. We introduce Click for controllable text generation, which needs no modification to the model architecture and facilitates out-of-the-box use of trained models. It employs a contrastive loss on sequence likelihood, which fundamentally decreases the generation probability of negative samples (i.e., generations with undesirable attributes). It also adopts a novel likelihood ranking-based strategy to construct contrastive samples from model generations. On the tasks of language detoxification, sentiment steering, and repetition reduction, we show that Click outperforms strong baselines of controllable text generation and demonstrate the superiority of Click's sample construction strategy.
Dialogue contradiction is a critical issue in open-domain dialogue systems. The contextualization nature of conversations makes dialogue contradiction detection rather challenging. In this work, we propose a benchmark for Contradiction Detection in Chinese Conversations, namely CDConv. It contains 12K multi-turn conversations annotated with three typical contradiction categories: Intra-sentence Contradiction, Role Confusion, and History Contradiction. To efficiently construct the CDConv conversations, we devise a series of methods for automatic conversation generation, which simulate common user behaviors that trigger chatbots to make contradictions. We conduct careful manual quality screening of the constructed conversations and show that state-of-the-art Chinese chatbots can be easily goaded into making contradictions. Experiments on CDConv show that properly modeling contextual information is critical for dialogue contradiction detection, but there are still unresolved challenges that require future research.
Empathy is a trait that naturally manifests in human conversation. Theoretically, the birth of empathetic responses results from conscious alignment and interaction between cognition and affection of empathy. However, existing works rely solely on a single affective aspect or model cognition and affection independently, limiting the empathetic capabilities of the generated responses. To this end, based on the commonsense cognition graph and emotional concept graph constructed involving commonsense and concept knowledge, we design a two-level strategy to align coarse-grained (between contextual cognition and contextual emotional state) and fine-grained (between each specific cognition and corresponding emotional reaction) Cognition and Affection for reSponding Empathetically (CASE). Extensive experiments demonstrate that CASE outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines on automatic and human evaluation. Our code will be released.
With the rapid development of deep learning, training Big Models (BMs) for multiple downstream tasks becomes a popular paradigm. Researchers have achieved various outcomes in the construction of BMs and the BM application in many fields. At present, there is a lack of research work that sorts out the overall progress of BMs and guides the follow-up research. In this paper, we cover not only the BM technologies themselves but also the prerequisites for BM training and applications with BMs, dividing the BM review into four parts: Resource, Models, Key Technologies and Application. We introduce 16 specific BM-related topics in those four parts, they are Data, Knowledge, Computing System, Parallel Training System, Language Model, Vision Model, Multi-modal Model, Theory&Interpretability, Commonsense Reasoning, Reliability&Security, Governance, Evaluation, Machine Translation, Text Generation, Dialogue and Protein Research. In each topic, we summarize clearly the current studies and propose some future research directions. At the end of this paper, we conclude the further development of BMs in a more general view.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2107.06499 by other authors
Large-scale pre-training has shown remarkable performance in building open-domain dialogue systems. However, previous works mainly focus on showing and evaluating the conversational performance of the released dialogue model, ignoring the discussion of some key factors towards a powerful human-like chatbot, especially in Chinese scenarios. In this paper, we conduct extensive experiments to investigate these under-explored factors, including data quality control, model architecture designs, training approaches, and decoding strategies. We propose EVA2.0, a large-scale pre-trained open-domain Chinese dialogue model with 2.8 billion parameters, and make our models and code publicly available. To our knowledge, EVA2.0 is the largest open-source Chinese dialogue model. Automatic and human evaluations show that our model significantly outperforms other open-source counterparts. We also discuss the limitations of this work by presenting some failure cases and pose some future directions.
Crowd-sourcing is commonly adopted for dialog data collection. However, it is highly costly and time-consuming, and the collected data is limited in scale and topic coverage. In this paper, aiming to generate emotional support conversations, we propose exploiting large-scale pre-trained language models for data augmentation, and provide key findings in our pilot exploration. Our adopted approach leverages the 6B-parameter GPT-J model and utilizes publicly available dialog posts to trigger conversations on various topics. Then we construct AugESC, a machine-augmented dataset for emotional support conversation. It is two orders of magnitude larger than the original ESConv dataset in scale, covers more diverse topics, and is shown to be of high quality by human evaluation. Lastly, we demonstrate with interactive evaluation that AugESC can further enhance dialog models tuned on ESConv to handle various conversation topics and to provide significantly more effective emotional support.
Dialogue safety problems severely limit the real-world deployment of neural conversational models and attract great research interests recently. We propose a taxonomy for dialogue safety specifically designed to capture unsafe behaviors that are unique in human-bot dialogue setting, with focuses on context-sensitive unsafety, which is under-explored in prior works. To spur research in this direction, we compile DiaSafety, a dataset of 6 unsafe categories with rich context-sensitive unsafe examples. Experiments show that existing utterance-level safety guarding tools fail catastrophically on our dataset. As a remedy, we train a context-level dialogue safety classifier to provide a strong baseline for context-sensitive dialogue unsafety detection. With our classifier, we perform safety evaluations on popular conversational models and show that existing dialogue systems are still stuck in context-sensitive safety problems.