We present PD-REAL, a novel large-scale dataset for unsupervised anomaly detection (AD) in the 3D domain. It is motivated by the fact that 2D-only representations in the AD task may fail to capture the geometric structures of anomalies due to uncertainty in lighting conditions or shooting angles. PD-REAL consists entirely of Play-Doh models for 15 object categories and focuses on the analysis of potential benefits from 3D information in a controlled environment. Specifically, objects are first created with six types of anomalies, such as dent, crack, or perforation, and then photographed under different lighting conditions to mimic real-world inspection scenarios. To demonstrate the usefulness of 3D information, we use a commercially available RealSense camera to capture RGB and depth images. Compared to the existing 3D dataset for AD tasks, the data acquisition of PD-REAL is significantly cheaper, easily scalable and easier to control variables. Extensive evaluations with state-of-the-art AD algorithms on our dataset demonstrate the benefits as well as challenges of using 3D information. Our dataset can be downloaded from https://github.com/Andy-cs008/PD-REAL
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) has been a fundamental challenge in machine learning for decades. The primary family of SSL algorithms, known as pseudo-labeling, involves assigning pseudo-labels to confident unlabeled instances and incorporating them into the training set. Therefore, the selection criteria of confident instances are crucial to the success of SSL. Recently, there has been growing interest in the development of SSL methods that use dynamic or adaptive thresholds. Yet, these methods typically apply the same threshold to all samples, or use class-dependent thresholds for instances belonging to a certain class, while neglecting instance-level information. In this paper, we propose the study of instance-dependent thresholds, which has the highest degree of freedom compared with existing methods. Specifically, we devise a novel instance-dependent threshold function for all unlabeled instances by utilizing their instance-level ambiguity and the instance-dependent error rates of pseudo-labels, so instances that are more likely to have incorrect pseudo-labels will have higher thresholds. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our instance-dependent threshold function provides a bounded probabilistic guarantee for the correctness of the pseudo-labels it assigns.
Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) has been an effective way to leverage abundant unlabeled data with extremely scarce labeled data. However, most SSL methods are commonly based on instance-wise consistency between different data transformations. Therefore, the label guidance on labeled data is hard to be propagated to unlabeled data. Consequently, the learning process on labeled data is much faster than on unlabeled data which is likely to fall into a local minima that does not favor unlabeled data, leading to sub-optimal generalization performance. In this paper, we propose FlatMatch which minimizes a cross-sharpness measure to ensure consistent learning performance between the two datasets. Specifically, we increase the empirical risk on labeled data to obtain a worst-case model which is a failure case that needs to be enhanced. Then, by leveraging the richness of unlabeled data, we penalize the prediction difference (i.e., cross-sharpness) between the worst-case model and the original model so that the learning direction is beneficial to generalization on unlabeled data. Therefore, we can calibrate the learning process without being limited to insufficient label information. As a result, the mismatched learning performance can be mitigated, further enabling the effective exploitation of unlabeled data and improving SSL performance. Through comprehensive validation, we show FlatMatch achieves state-of-the-art results in many SSL settings.
Out-of-Distribution (OOD) Generalization aims to learn robust models that generalize well to various environments without fitting to distribution-specific features. Recent studies based on Lottery Ticket Hypothesis (LTH) address this problem by minimizing the learning target to find some of the parameters that are critical to the task. However, in OOD problems, such solutions are suboptimal as the learning task contains severe distribution noises, which can mislead the optimization process. Therefore, apart from finding the task-related parameters (i.e., invariant parameters), we propose Exploring Variant parameters for Invariant Learning (EVIL) which also leverages the distribution knowledge to find the parameters that are sensitive to distribution shift (i.e., variant parameters). Once the variant parameters are left out of invariant learning, a robust subnetwork that is resistant to distribution shift can be found. Additionally, the parameters that are relatively stable across distributions can be considered invariant ones to improve invariant learning. By fully exploring both variant and invariant parameters, our EVIL can effectively identify a robust subnetwork to improve OOD generalization. In extensive experiments on integrated testbed: DomainBed, EVIL can effectively and efficiently enhance many popular methods, such as ERM, IRM, SAM, etc.
Adversarial Training (AT) is a widely-used algorithm for building robust neural networks, but it suffers from the issue of robust overfitting, the fundamental mechanism of which remains unclear. In this work, we consider normal data and adversarial perturbation as separate factors, and identify that the underlying causes of robust overfitting stem from the normal data through factor ablation in AT. Furthermore, we explain the onset of robust overfitting as a result of the model learning features that lack robust generalization, which we refer to as non-effective features. Specifically, we provide a detailed analysis of the generation of non-effective features and how they lead to robust overfitting. Additionally, we explain various empirical behaviors observed in robust overfitting and revisit different techniques to mitigate robust overfitting from the perspective of non-effective features, providing a comprehensive understanding of the robust overfitting phenomenon. This understanding inspires us to propose two measures, attack strength and data augmentation, to hinder the learning of non-effective features by the neural network, thereby alleviating robust overfitting. Extensive experiments conducted on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods in mitigating robust overfitting and enhancing adversarial robustness.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs), inspired by the interconnection of real neurons, have achieved unprecedented success in various fields such as computer vision and natural language processing. Recently, a novel mathematical ANN model, known as the dendritic neuron model (DNM), has been proposed to address nonlinear problems by more accurately reflecting the structure of real neurons. However, the single-output design limits its capability to handle multi-output tasks, significantly lowering its applications. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-in and multi-out dendritic neuron model (MODN) to tackle multi-output tasks. Our core idea is to introduce a filtering matrix to the soma layer to adaptively select the desired dendrites to regress each output. Because such a matrix is designed to be learnable, MODN can explore the relationship between each dendrite and output to provide a better solution to downstream tasks. We also model a telodendron layer into MODN to simulate better the real neuron behavior. Importantly, MODN is a more general and unified framework that can be naturally specialized as the DNM by customizing the filtering matrix. To explore the optimization of MODN, we investigate both heuristic and gradient-based optimizers and introduce a 2-step training method for MODN. Extensive experimental results performed on 11 datasets on both binary and multi-class classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of MODN, with respect to accuracy, convergence, and generality.
The sample selection approach is very popular in learning with noisy labels. As deep networks learn pattern first, prior methods built on sample selection share a similar training procedure: the small-loss examples can be regarded as clean examples and used for helping generalization, while the large-loss examples are treated as mislabeled ones and excluded from network parameter updates. However, such a procedure is arguably debatable from two folds: (a) it does not consider the bad influence of noisy labels in selected small-loss examples; (b) it does not make good use of the discarded large-loss examples, which may be clean or have meaningful information for generalization. In this paper, we propose regularly truncated M-estimators (RTME) to address the above two issues simultaneously. Specifically, RTME can alternately switch modes between truncated M-estimators and original M-estimators. The former can adaptively select small-losses examples without knowing the noise rate and reduce the side-effects of noisy labels in them. The latter makes the possibly clean examples but with large losses involved to help generalization. Theoretically, we demonstrate that our strategies are label-noise-tolerant. Empirically, comprehensive experimental results show that our method can outperform multiple baselines and is robust to broad noise types and levels.
Accurate depth estimation under out-of-distribution (OoD) scenarios, such as adverse weather conditions, sensor failure, and noise contamination, is desirable for safety-critical applications. Existing depth estimation systems, however, suffer inevitably from real-world corruptions and perturbations and are struggled to provide reliable depth predictions under such cases. In this paper, we summarize the winning solutions from the RoboDepth Challenge -- an academic competition designed to facilitate and advance robust OoD depth estimation. This challenge was developed based on the newly established KITTI-C and NYUDepth2-C benchmarks. We hosted two stand-alone tracks, with an emphasis on robust self-supervised and robust fully-supervised depth estimation, respectively. Out of more than two hundred participants, nine unique and top-performing solutions have appeared, with novel designs ranging from the following aspects: spatial- and frequency-domain augmentations, masked image modeling, image restoration and super-resolution, adversarial training, diffusion-based noise suppression, vision-language pre-training, learned model ensembling, and hierarchical feature enhancement. Extensive experimental analyses along with insightful observations are drawn to better understand the rationale behind each design. We hope this challenge could lay a solid foundation for future research on robust and reliable depth estimation and beyond. The datasets, competition toolkit, workshop recordings, and source code from the winning teams are publicly available on the challenge website.
The advent of Chat-GPT has led to a surge of interest in Embodied AI. However, many existing Embodied AI models heavily rely on massive interactions with training environments, which may not be practical in real-world situations. To this end, the Maniskill2 has introduced a full-physics simulation benchmark for manipulating various 3D objects. This benchmark enables agents to be trained using diverse datasets of demonstrations and evaluates their ability to generalize to unseen scenarios in testing environments. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage fine-tuning strategy that aims to further enhance the generalization capability of our model based on the Maniskill2 benchmark. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by achieving the 1st prize in all three tracks of the ManiSkill2 Challenge. Our findings highlight the potential of our method to improve the generalization abilities of Embodied AI models and pave the way for their ractical applications in real-world scenarios. All codes and models of our solution is available at https://github.com/xtli12/GXU-LIPE.git
Learning-based path planning is becoming a promising robot navigation methodology due to its adaptability to various environments. However, the expensive computing and storage associated with networks impose significant challenges for their deployment on low-cost robots. Motivated by this practical challenge, we develop a lightweight neural path planning architecture with a dual input network and a hybrid sampler for resource-constrained robotic systems. Our architecture is designed with efficient task feature extraction and fusion modules to translate the given planning instance into a guidance map. The hybrid sampler is then applied to restrict the planning within the prospective regions indicated by the guide map. To enable the network training, we further construct a publicly available dataset with various successful planning instances. Numerical simulations and physical experiments demonstrate that, compared with baseline approaches, our approach has nearly an order of magnitude fewer model size and five times lower computational while achieving promising performance. Besides, our approach can also accelerate the planning convergence process with fewer planning iterations compared to sample-based methods.