Although the multi-jointed underactuated manipulator is highly dexterous, its grasping capacity does not match that of the parallel jaw gripper. This work introduces a fractal gripper to enhance the grasping capacity of multi-joint underactuated manipulators, preserving their passive clamping features. We describe in detail the working principle and manufacturing process of the fractal gripper. This work, inspired by the 'Fractal Vise' structure, resulted in the invention of a fractal gripper with mode switching capabilities. The fractal gripper inherits the inherent adaptive properties of the fractal structure and realizes the self-resetting function by integrating spring into the original design, thereby enhancing the efficiency of object grasping tasks. The fractal gripper prevents object damage by distributing pressure evenly and applying it at multiple points through its fractal structure during closure. Objects of various shapes are effectively grasped by the fractal gripper, which ensures a safe and secure grasp. The superior performance was provided by the force distribution characteristics of the fractal gripper. By applying the flexible polymer PDMS, which possesses superior elasticity, to the fractal structure's wrapping surface, potential scratching during grasping is effectively prevented, thus protecting the object's geometric surface. Grab experiments with objects of diverse shapes and sizes confirm fractal gripper multi-scale adaptability and superior grasping stability.
At present, the incidence and fatality rate of lung cancer in China rank first among all malignant tumors. Despite the continuous development and improvement of China's medical level, the overall 5-year survival rate of lung cancer patients is still lower than 20% and is staged. A number of studies have confirmed that early diagnosis and treatment of early stage lung cancer is of great significance to improve the prognosis of patients. In recent years, artificial intelligence technology has gradually begun to be applied in oncology. ai is used in cancer screening, clinical diagnosis, radiation therapy (image acquisition, at-risk organ segmentation, image calibration and delivery) and other aspects of rapid development. However, whether medical ai can be socialized depends on the public's attitude and acceptance to a certain extent. However, at present, there are few studies on the diagnosis of early lung cancer by AI technology combined with SCT scanning. In view of this, this study applied the combined method in early lung cancer screening, aiming to find a safe and efficient screening mode and provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.
The joint progress of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and domain specific hardware accelerators such as GPUs and TPUs took over many domains of machine learning research. This development is accompanied by a rapid growth of the required computational demands for larger models and more data. Concurrently, emerging properties of foundation models such as in-context learning drive new opportunities for machine learning applications. However, the computational cost of such applications is a limiting factor of the technology in data centers, and more importantly in mobile devices and edge systems. To mediate the energy footprint and non-trivial latency of contemporary systems, neuromorphic computing systems deeply integrate computational principles of neurobiological systems by leveraging low-power analog and digital technologies. SpiNNaker2 is a digital neuromorphic chip developed for scalable machine learning. The event-based and asynchronous design of SpiNNaker2 allows the composition of large-scale systems involving thousands of chips. This work features the operating principles of SpiNNaker2 systems, outlining the prototype of novel machine learning applications. These applications range from ANNs over bio-inspired spiking neural networks to generalized event-based neural networks. With the successful development and deployment of SpiNNaker2, we aim to facilitate the advancement of event-based and asynchronous algorithms for future generations of machine learning systems.
* Submitted at the Workshop on Machine Learning with New Compute
Paradigms at NeurIPS 2023 (MLNPCP 2023)
The objective of this study is to improve automated feedback tools designed for English Language Learners (ELLs) through the utilization of data science techniques encompassing machine learning, natural language processing, and educational data analytics. Automated essay scoring (AES) research has made strides in evaluating written essays, but it often overlooks the specific needs of English Language Learners (ELLs) in language development. This study explores the application of BERT-related techniques to enhance the assessment of ELLs' writing proficiency within AES. To address the specific needs of ELLs, we propose the use of DeBERTa, a state-of-the-art neural language model, for improving automated feedback tools. DeBERTa, pretrained on large text corpora using self-supervised learning, learns universal language representations adaptable to various natural language understanding tasks. The model incorporates several innovative techniques, including adversarial training through Adversarial Weights Perturbation (AWP) and Metric-specific AttentionPooling (6 kinds of AP) for each label in the competition. The primary focus of this research is to investigate the impact of hyperparameters, particularly the adversarial learning rate, on the performance of the model. By fine-tuning the hyperparameter tuning process, including the influence of 6AP and AWP, the resulting models can provide more accurate evaluations of language proficiency and support tailored learning tasks for ELLs. This work has the potential to significantly benefit ELLs by improving their English language proficiency and facilitating their educational journey.
* This article was accepted by 2023 International Conference on
Information Network and Computer Communications(INCC)
The process of transforming input images into corresponding textual explanations stands as a crucial and complex endeavor within the domains of computer vision and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose an innovative ensemble approach that harnesses the capabilities of Contrastive Language-Image Pretraining models.
Fine-grained entity typing (FET) is the task of identifying specific entity types at a fine-grained level for entity mentions based on their contextual information. Conventional methods for FET require extensive human annotation, which is time-consuming and costly. Recent studies have been developing weakly supervised or zero-shot approaches. We study the setting of zero-shot FET where only an ontology is provided. However, most existing ontology structures lack rich supporting information and even contain ambiguous relations, making them ineffective in guiding FET. Recently developed language models, though promising in various few-shot and zero-shot NLP tasks, may face challenges in zero-shot FET due to their lack of interaction with task-specific ontology. In this study, we propose OnEFET, where we (1) enrich each node in the ontology structure with two types of extra information: instance information for training sample augmentation and topic information to relate types to contexts, and (2) develop a coarse-to-fine typing algorithm that exploits the enriched information by training an entailment model with contrasting topics and instance-based augmented training samples. Our experiments show that OnEFET achieves high-quality fine-grained entity typing without human annotation, outperforming existing zero-shot methods by a large margin and rivaling supervised methods.
Unsupervised learning of 3D-aware generative adversarial networks has lately made much progress. Some recent work demonstrates promising results of learning human generative models using neural articulated radiance fields, yet their generalization ability and controllability lag behind parametric human models, i.e., they do not perform well when generalizing to novel pose/shape and are not part controllable. To solve these problems, we propose VeRi3D, a generative human vertex-based radiance field parameterized by vertices of the parametric human template, SMPL. We map each 3D point to the local coordinate system defined on its neighboring vertices, and use the corresponding vertex feature and local coordinates for mapping it to color and density values. We demonstrate that our simple approach allows for generating photorealistic human images with free control over camera pose, human pose, shape, as well as enabling part-level editing.
Recent studies have revealed the intriguing few-shot learning ability of pretrained language models (PLMs): They can quickly adapt to a new task when fine-tuned on a small amount of labeled data formulated as prompts, without requiring abundant task-specific annotations. Despite their promising performance, most existing few-shot approaches that only learn from the small training set still underperform fully supervised training by nontrivial margins. In this work, we study few-shot learning with PLMs from a different perspective: We first tune an autoregressive PLM on the few-shot samples and then use it as a generator to synthesize a large amount of novel training samples which augment the original training set. To encourage the generator to produce label-discriminative samples, we train it via weighted maximum likelihood where the weight of each token is automatically adjusted based on a discriminative meta-learning objective. A classification PLM can then be fine-tuned on both the few-shot and the synthetic samples with regularization for better generalization and stability. Our approach FewGen achieves an overall better result across seven classification tasks of the GLUE benchmark than existing few-shot learning methods, improving no-augmentation methods by 5+ average points, and outperforming augmentation methods by 3+ average points.
We study the problem of few-shot Fine-grained Entity Typing (FET), where only a few annotated entity mentions with contexts are given for each entity type. Recently, prompt-based tuning has demonstrated superior performance to standard fine-tuning in few-shot scenarios by formulating the entity type classification task as a ''fill-in-the-blank'' problem. This allows effective utilization of the strong language modeling capability of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs). Despite the success of current prompt-based tuning approaches, two major challenges remain: (1) the verbalizer in prompts is either manually designed or constructed from external knowledge bases, without considering the target corpus and label hierarchy information, and (2) current approaches mainly utilize the representation power of PLMs, but have not explored their generation power acquired through extensive general-domain pre-training. In this work, we propose a novel framework for few-shot FET consisting of two modules: (1) an entity type label interpretation module automatically learns to relate type labels to the vocabulary by jointly leveraging few-shot instances and the label hierarchy, and (2) a type-based contextualized instance generator produces new instances based on given instances to enlarge the training set for better generalization. On three benchmark datasets, our model outperforms existing methods by significant margins. Code can be found at https://github.com/teapot123/Fine-Grained-Entity-Typing.
Variational quantum algorithms (VQAs) are expected to establish valuable applications on near-term quantum computers. However, recent works have pointed out that the performance of VQAs greatly relies on the capability of the ansatzes and is seriously limited by optimization issues such as barren plateaus (i.e., vanishing gradients). This work proposes the state efficient ansatz (SEA) for accurate quantum dynamics simulations with improved trainability. First, we show that SEA can generate an arbitrary pure state with much fewer parameters than a universal ansatz, making it efficient for tasks like ground state estimation. It also has the flexibility in adjusting the entanglement of the prepared state, which could be applied to further improve the efficiency of simulating weak entanglement. Second, we show that SEA is not a unitary 2-design even if it has universal wavefunction expressibility and thus has great potential to improve the trainability by avoiding the zone of barren plateaus. We further investigate a plethora of examples in ground state estimation and notably obtain significant improvements in the variances of derivatives and the overall optimization behaviors. This result indicates that SEA can mitigate barren plateaus by sacrificing the redundant expressibility for the target problem.