Although vision models such as Contrastive Language-Image Pre-Training (CLIP) show impressive generalization performance, their zero-shot robustness is still limited under Out-of-Distribution (OOD) scenarios without fine-tuning. Instead of undesirably providing human supervision as commonly done, it is possible to take advantage of Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs) that hold powerful visual understanding abilities. However, MLLMs are shown to struggle with vision problems due to the incompatibility of tasks, thus hindering their utilization. In this paper, we propose to effectively leverage MLLMs to conduct Machine Vision Therapy which aims to rectify the noisy predictions from vision models. By fine-tuning with the denoised labels, the learning model performance can be boosted in an unsupervised manner. To solve the incompatibility issue, we propose a novel Denoising In-Context Learning (DICL) strategy to align vision tasks with MLLMs. Concretely, by estimating a transition matrix that captures the probability of one class being confused with another, an instruction containing a correct exemplar and an erroneous one from the most probable noisy class can be constructed. Such an instruction can help any MLLMs with ICL ability to detect and rectify incorrect predictions of vision models. Through extensive experiments on ImageNet, WILDS, DomainBed, and other OOD datasets, we carefully validate the quantitative and qualitative effectiveness of our method. Our code is available at https://github.com/tmllab/Machine_Vision_Therapy.
Coreset selection is powerful in reducing computational costs and accelerating data processing for deep learning algorithms. It strives to identify a small subset from large-scale data, so that training only on the subset practically performs on par with full data. When coreset selection is applied in realistic scenes, under the premise that the identified coreset has achieved comparable model performance, practitioners regularly desire the identified coreset can have a size as small as possible for lower costs and greater acceleration. Motivated by this desideratum, for the first time, we pose the problem of "coreset selection with prioritized multiple objectives", in which the smallest coreset size under model performance constraints is explored. Moreover, to address this problem, an innovative method is proposed, which maintains optimization priority order over the model performance and coreset size, and efficiently optimizes them in the coreset selection procedure. Theoretically, we provide the convergence guarantee of the proposed method. Empirically, extensive experiments confirm its superiority compared with previous strategies, often yielding better model performance with smaller coreset sizes.
Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection discerns OOD data where the predictor cannot make valid predictions as in-distribution (ID) data, thereby increasing the reliability of open-world classification. However, it is typically hard to collect real out-of-distribution (OOD) data for training a predictor capable of discerning ID and OOD patterns. This obstacle gives rise to data generation-based learning methods, synthesizing OOD data via data generators for predictor training without requiring any real OOD data. Related methods typically pre-train a generator on ID data and adopt various selection procedures to find those data likely to be the OOD cases. However, generated data may still coincide with ID semantics, i.e., mistaken OOD generation remains, confusing the predictor between ID and OOD data. To this end, we suggest that generated data (with mistaken OOD generation) can be used to devise an auxiliary OOD detection task to facilitate real OOD detection. Specifically, we can ensure that learning from such an auxiliary task is beneficial if the ID and the OOD parts have disjoint supports, with the help of a well-designed training procedure for the predictor. Accordingly, we propose a powerful data generation-based learning method named Auxiliary Task-based OOD Learning (ATOL) that can relieve the mistaken OOD generation. We conduct extensive experiments under various OOD detection setups, demonstrating the effectiveness of our method against its advanced counterparts.
Despite remarkable success in various applications, large language models (LLMs) are vulnerable to adversarial jailbreaks that make the safety guardrails void. However, previous studies for jailbreaks usually resort to brute-force optimization or extrapolations of a high computation cost, which might not be practical or effective. In this paper, inspired by the Milgram experiment that individuals can harm another person if they are told to do so by an authoritative figure, we disclose a lightweight method, termed as DeepInception, which can easily hypnotize LLM to be a jailbreaker and unlock its misusing risks. Specifically, DeepInception leverages the personification ability of LLM to construct a novel nested scene to behave, which realizes an adaptive way to escape the usage control in a normal scenario and provides the possibility for further direct jailbreaks. Empirically, we conduct comprehensive experiments to show its efficacy. Our DeepInception can achieve competitive jailbreak success rates with previous counterparts and realize a continuous jailbreak in subsequent interactions, which reveals the critical weakness of self-losing on both open/closed-source LLMs like Falcon, Vicuna, Llama-2, and GPT-3.5/4/4V. Our investigation appeals that people should pay more attention to the safety aspects of LLMs and a stronger defense against their misuse risks. The code is publicly available at: https://github.com/tmlr-group/DeepInception.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) has been a fundamental challenge in machine learning for decades. The primary family of SSL algorithms, known as pseudo-labeling, involves assigning pseudo-labels to confident unlabeled instances and incorporating them into the training set. Therefore, the selection criteria of confident instances are crucial to the success of SSL. Recently, there has been growing interest in the development of SSL methods that use dynamic or adaptive thresholds. Yet, these methods typically apply the same threshold to all samples, or use class-dependent thresholds for instances belonging to a certain class, while neglecting instance-level information. In this paper, we propose the study of instance-dependent thresholds, which has the highest degree of freedom compared with existing methods. Specifically, we devise a novel instance-dependent threshold function for all unlabeled instances by utilizing their instance-level ambiguity and the instance-dependent error rates of pseudo-labels, so instances that are more likely to have incorrect pseudo-labels will have higher thresholds. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our instance-dependent threshold function provides a bounded probabilistic guarantee for the correctness of the pseudo-labels it assigns.
Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is important for deploying reliable machine learning models on real-world applications. Recent advances in outlier exposure have shown promising results on OOD detection via fine-tuning model with informatively sampled auxiliary outliers. However, previous methods assume that the collected outliers can be sufficiently large and representative to cover the boundary between ID and OOD data, which might be impractical and challenging. In this work, we propose a novel framework, namely, Diversified Outlier Exposure (DivOE), for effective OOD detection via informative extrapolation based on the given auxiliary outliers. Specifically, DivOE introduces a new learning objective, which diversifies the auxiliary distribution by explicitly synthesizing more informative outliers for extrapolation during training. It leverages a multi-step optimization method to generate novel outliers beyond the original ones, which is compatible with many variants of outlier exposure. Extensive experiments and analyses have been conducted to characterize and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed DivOE. The code is publicly available at: https://github.com/tmlr-group/DivOE.
Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) has been an effective way to leverage abundant unlabeled data with extremely scarce labeled data. However, most SSL methods are commonly based on instance-wise consistency between different data transformations. Therefore, the label guidance on labeled data is hard to be propagated to unlabeled data. Consequently, the learning process on labeled data is much faster than on unlabeled data which is likely to fall into a local minima that does not favor unlabeled data, leading to sub-optimal generalization performance. In this paper, we propose FlatMatch which minimizes a cross-sharpness measure to ensure consistent learning performance between the two datasets. Specifically, we increase the empirical risk on labeled data to obtain a worst-case model which is a failure case that needs to be enhanced. Then, by leveraging the richness of unlabeled data, we penalize the prediction difference (i.e., cross-sharpness) between the worst-case model and the original model so that the learning direction is beneficial to generalization on unlabeled data. Therefore, we can calibrate the learning process without being limited to insufficient label information. As a result, the mismatched learning performance can be mitigated, further enabling the effective exploitation of unlabeled data and improving SSL performance. Through comprehensive validation, we show FlatMatch achieves state-of-the-art results in many SSL settings.
Out-of-Distribution (OOD) Generalization aims to learn robust models that generalize well to various environments without fitting to distribution-specific features. Recent studies based on Lottery Ticket Hypothesis (LTH) address this problem by minimizing the learning target to find some of the parameters that are critical to the task. However, in OOD problems, such solutions are suboptimal as the learning task contains severe distribution noises, which can mislead the optimization process. Therefore, apart from finding the task-related parameters (i.e., invariant parameters), we propose Exploring Variant parameters for Invariant Learning (EVIL) which also leverages the distribution knowledge to find the parameters that are sensitive to distribution shift (i.e., variant parameters). Once the variant parameters are left out of invariant learning, a robust subnetwork that is resistant to distribution shift can be found. Additionally, the parameters that are relatively stable across distributions can be considered invariant ones to improve invariant learning. By fully exploring both variant and invariant parameters, our EVIL can effectively identify a robust subnetwork to improve OOD generalization. In extensive experiments on integrated testbed: DomainBed, EVIL can effectively and efficiently enhance many popular methods, such as ERM, IRM, SAM, etc.
In-context learning is a promising paradigm that utilizes in-context examples as prompts for the predictions of large language models. These prompts are crucial for achieving strong performance. However, since the prompts need to be sampled from a large volume of annotated examples, finding the right prompt may result in high annotation costs. To address this challenge, this paper introduces an influence-driven selective annotation method that aims to minimize annotation costs while improving the quality of in-context examples. The essence of our method is to select a pivotal subset from a large-scale unlabeled data pool to annotate for the subsequent sampling of prompts. Specifically, a directed graph is first constructed to represent unlabeled data. Afterward, the influence of candidate unlabeled subsets is quantified with a diffusion process. A simple yet effective greedy algorithm for unlabeled data selection is lastly introduced. It iteratively selects the data if it provides a maximum marginal gain with respect to quantified influence. Compared with previous efforts on selective annotations, our influence-driven method works in an end-to-end manner, avoids an intractable explicit balance between data diversity and representativeness, and enjoys theoretical support. Experiments confirm the superiority of the proposed method on various benchmarks, achieving better performance under lower time consumption during subset selection. The project page is available at https://skzhang1.github.io/IDEAL/.