Reconstructing natural language from non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) holds great promise as a language decoding technology for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, EEG-based language decoding is still in its nascent stages, facing several technical issues such as: 1) Absence of a hybrid strategy that can effectively integrate cross-modality (between EEG and text) self-learning with intra-modality self-reconstruction of EEG features or textual sequences; 2) Under-utilization of large language models (LLMs) to enhance EEG-based language decoding. To address above issues, we propose the Contrastive EEG-Text Masked Autoencoder (CET-MAE), a novel model that orchestrates compound self-supervised learning across and within EEG and text through a dedicated multi-stream encoder. Furthermore, we develop a framework called E2T-PTR (EEG-to-Text decoding using Pretrained Transferable Representations), which leverages pre-trained modules alongside the EEG stream from CET-MAE and further enables an LLM (specifically BART) to decode text from EEG sequences. Comprehensive experiments conducted on the popular text-evoked EEG database, ZuCo, demonstrate the superiority of E2T-PTR, which outperforms the state-of-the-art in ROUGE-1 F1 and BLEU-4 scores by 8.34% and 32.21%, respectively. These results indicate significant advancements in the field and underscores the proposed framework's potential to enable more powerful and widespread BCI applications.
We present SongComposer, an innovative LLM designed for song composition. It could understand and generate melodies and lyrics in symbolic song representations, by leveraging the capability of LLM. Existing music-related LLM treated the music as quantized audio signals, while such implicit encoding leads to inefficient encoding and poor flexibility. In contrast, we resort to symbolic song representation, the mature and efficient way humans designed for music, and enable LLM to explicitly compose songs like humans. In practice, we design a novel tuple design to format lyric and three note attributes (pitch, duration, and rest duration) in the melody, which guarantees the correct LLM understanding of musical symbols and realizes precise alignment between lyrics and melody. To impart basic music understanding to LLM, we carefully collected SongCompose-PT, a large-scale song pretraining dataset that includes lyrics, melodies, and paired lyrics-melodies in either Chinese or English. After adequate pre-training, 10K carefully crafted QA pairs are used to empower the LLM with the instruction-following capability and solve diverse tasks. With extensive experiments, SongComposer demonstrates superior performance in lyric-to-melody generation, melody-to-lyric generation, song continuation, and text-to-song creation, outperforming advanced LLMs like GPT-4.
Automatic International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding plays a crucial role in the extraction of relevant information from clinical notes for proper recording and billing. One of the most important directions for boosting the performance of automatic ICD coding is modeling ICD code relations. However, current methods insufficiently model the intricate relationships among ICD codes and often overlook the importance of context in clinical notes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, a contextualized and flexible framework, to enhance the learning of ICD code representations. Our approach, unlike existing methods, employs a dependent learning paradigm that considers the context of clinical notes in modeling all possible code relations. We evaluate our approach on six public ICD coding datasets and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach compared to state-of-the-art baselines.
We present DualFocus, a novel framework for integrating macro and micro perspectives within multi-modal large language models (MLLMs) to enhance vision-language task performance. Current MLLMs typically singularly focus on inputs at a predefined resolution, resulting in deficiencies in detailed questions involving local regions. We introduced a DualFocus mechanism where the model concentrates on the image from a macro perspective, responses to the question, and identifies suitable sub-regions to zoom in for subsequent micro perspective analysis. Via the integration of answers from both macro and micro perspectives, the model is adept at addressing tasks that encompass global, detailed, and combined considerations. To endows the DualFocus mechanism in MLLMs, we curated a tailored dataset derived from the Visual Genome (VG) and adapted it to align with the training regimen of DualFocus. Through comparative studies across different model sizes and benchmarks, we demonstrate DualFocus's superiority in balancing detailed examination with holistic insight, significantly reducing hallucination instances in MLLMs and improving their performance in various vision-language tasks.
Visual Question Answering (VQA) is a fundamental task in computer vision and natural language process fields. Although the ``pre-training & finetuning'' learning paradigm significantly improves the VQA performance, the adversarial robustness of such a learning paradigm has not been explored. In this paper, we delve into a new problem: using a pre-trained multimodal source model to create adversarial image-text pairs and then transferring them to attack the target VQA models. Correspondingly, we propose a novel VQAttack model, which can iteratively generate both image and text perturbations with the designed modules: the large language model (LLM)-enhanced image attack and the cross-modal joint attack module. At each iteration, the LLM-enhanced image attack module first optimizes the latent representation-based loss to generate feature-level image perturbations. Then it incorporates an LLM to further enhance the image perturbations by optimizing the designed masked answer anti-recovery loss. The cross-modal joint attack module will be triggered at a specific iteration, which updates the image and text perturbations sequentially. Notably, the text perturbation updates are based on both the learned gradients in the word embedding space and word synonym-based substitution. Experimental results on two VQA datasets with five validated models demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed VQAttack in the transferable attack setting, compared with state-of-the-art baselines. This work reveals a significant blind spot in the ``pre-training & fine-tuning'' paradigm on VQA tasks. Source codes will be released.
We consider multi-source free domain adaptation, the problem of adapting multiple existing models to a new domain without accessing the source data. Among existing approaches, methods based on model ensemble are effective in both the source and target domains, but incur significantly increased computational costs. Towards this dilemma, in this work, we propose a novel framework called SepRep-Net, which tackles multi-source free domain adaptation via model Separation and Reparameterization.Concretely, SepRep-Net reassembled multiple existing models to a unified network, while maintaining separate pathways (Separation). During training, separate pathways are optimized in parallel with the information exchange regularly performed via an additional feature merging unit. With our specific design, these pathways can be further reparameterized into a single one to facilitate inference (Reparameterization). SepRep-Net is characterized by 1) effectiveness: competitive performance on the target domain, 2) efficiency: low computational costs, and 3) generalizability: maintaining more source knowledge than existing solutions. As a general approach, SepRep-Net can be seamlessly plugged into various methods. Extensive experiments validate the performance of SepRep-Net on mainstream benchmarks.
Federated Learning (FL), while a breakthrough in decentralized machine learning, contends with significant challenges such as limited data availability and the variability of computational resources, which can stifle the performance and scalability of the models. The integration of Foundation Models (FMs) into FL presents a compelling solution to these issues, with the potential to enhance data richness and reduce computational demands through pre-training and data augmentation. However, this incorporation introduces novel issues in terms of robustness, privacy, and fairness, which have not been sufficiently addressed in the existing research. We make a preliminary investigation into this field by systematically evaluating the implications of FM-FL integration across these dimensions. We analyze the trade-offs involved, uncover the threats and issues introduced by this integration, and propose a set of criteria and strategies for navigating these challenges. Furthermore, we identify potential research directions for advancing this field, laying a foundation for future development in creating reliable, secure, and equitable FL systems.
The development of electronic health records (EHR) systems has enabled the collection of a vast amount of digitized patient data. However, utilizing EHR data for predictive modeling presents several challenges due to its unique characteristics. With the advancements in machine learning techniques, deep learning has demonstrated its superiority in various applications, including healthcare. This survey systematically reviews recent advances in deep learning-based predictive models using EHR data. Specifically, we begin by introducing the background of EHR data and providing a mathematical definition of the predictive modeling task. We then categorize and summarize predictive deep models from multiple perspectives. Furthermore, we present benchmarks and toolkits relevant to predictive modeling in healthcare. Finally, we conclude this survey by discussing open challenges and suggesting promising directions for future research.
We introduce InternLM-XComposer2, a cutting-edge vision-language model excelling in free-form text-image composition and comprehension. This model goes beyond conventional vision-language understanding, adeptly crafting interleaved text-image content from diverse inputs like outlines, detailed textual specifications, and reference images, enabling highly customizable content creation. InternLM-XComposer2 proposes a Partial LoRA (PLoRA) approach that applies additional LoRA parameters exclusively to image tokens to preserve the integrity of pre-trained language knowledge, striking a balance between precise vision understanding and text composition with literary talent. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of InternLM-XComposer2 based on InternLM2-7B in producing high-quality long-text multi-modal content and its exceptional vision-language understanding performance across various benchmarks, where it not only significantly outperforms existing multimodal models but also matches or even surpasses GPT-4V and Gemini Pro in certain assessments. This highlights its remarkable proficiency in the realm of multimodal understanding. The InternLM-XComposer2 model series with 7B parameters are publicly available at https://github.com/InternLM/InternLM-XComposer.
Most existing personalized federated learning approaches are based on intricate designs, which often require complex implementation and tuning. In order to address this limitation, we propose a simple yet effective personalized federated learning framework. Specifically, during each communication round, we group clients into multiple clusters based on their model training status and data distribution on the server side. We then consider each cluster center as a node equipped with model parameters and construct a graph that connects these nodes using weighted edges. Additionally, we update the model parameters at each node by propagating information across the entire graph. Subsequently, we design a precise personalized model distribution strategy to allow clients to obtain the most suitable model from the server side. We conduct experiments on three image benchmark datasets and create synthetic structured datasets with three types of typologies. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed work.
* This paper has been accepted by PAKDD 2024 as an oral presentation