This paper advances the field of pedestrian localization by introducing a unifying framework for opportunistic positioning based on nonlinear factor graph optimization. While many existing approaches assume constant availability of one or multiple sensing signals, our methodology employs IMU-based pedestrian inertial navigation as the backbone for sensor fusion, opportunistically integrating Ultra-Wideband (UWB), Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and WiFi signals when they are available in the environment. The proposed PEOPLEx framework is designed to incorporate sensing data as it becomes available, operating without any prior knowledge about the environment (e.g. anchor locations, radio frequency maps, etc.). Our contributions are twofold: 1) we introduce an opportunistic multi-sensor and real-time pedestrian positioning framework fusing the available sensor measurements; 2) we develop novel factors for adaptive scaling and coarse loop closures, significantly improving the precision of indoor positioning. Experimental validation confirms that our approach achieves accurate localization estimates in real indoor scenarios using commercial smartphones.
Accurate modeling of the diverse and dynamic interests of users remains a significant challenge in the design of personalized recommender systems. Existing user modeling methods, like single-point and multi-point representations, have limitations w.r.t. accuracy, diversity, computational cost, and adaptability. To overcome these deficiencies, we introduce density-based user representations (DURs), a novel model that leverages Gaussian process regression for effective multi-interest recommendation and retrieval. Our approach, GPR4DUR, exploits DURs to capture user interest variability without manual tuning, incorporates uncertainty-awareness, and scales well to large numbers of users. Experiments using real-world offline datasets confirm the adaptability and efficiency of GPR4DUR, while online experiments with simulated users demonstrate its ability to address the exploration-exploitation trade-off by effectively utilizing model uncertainty.
Negative sampling methods are vital in implicit recommendation models as they allow us to obtain negative instances from massive unlabeled data. Most existing approaches focus on sampling hard negative samples in various ways. These studies are orthogonal to the recommendation model and implicit datasets. However, such an idea contradicts the common belief in AutoML that the model and dataset should be matched. Empirical experiments suggest that the best-performing negative sampler depends on the implicit dataset and the specific recommendation model. Hence, we propose a hypothesis that the negative sampler should align with the capacity of the recommendation models as well as the statistics of the datasets to achieve optimal performance. A mismatch between these three would result in sub-optimal outcomes. An intuitive idea to address the mismatch problem is to exhaustively select the best-performing negative sampler given the model and dataset. However, such an approach is computationally expensive and time-consuming, leaving the problem unsolved. In this work, we propose the AutoSample framework that adaptively selects the best-performing negative sampler among candidates. Specifically, we propose a loss-to-instance approximation to transform the negative sampler search task into the learning task over a weighted sum, enabling end-to-end training of the model. We also designed an adaptive search algorithm to extensively and efficiently explore the search space. A specific initialization approach is also obtained to better utilize the obtained model parameters during the search stage, which is similar to curriculum learning and leads to better performance and less computation resource consumption. We evaluate the proposed framework on four benchmarks over three models. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework.
Deep sparse networks are widely investigated as a neural network architecture for prediction tasks with high-dimensional sparse features, with which feature interaction selection is a critical component. While previous methods primarily focus on how to search feature interaction in a coarse-grained space, less attention has been given to a finer granularity. In this work, we introduce a hybrid-grained feature interaction selection approach that targets both feature field and feature value for deep sparse networks. To explore such expansive space, we propose a decomposed space which is calculated on the fly. We then develop a selection algorithm called OptFeature, which efficiently selects the feature interaction from both the feature field and the feature value simultaneously. Results from experiments on three large real-world benchmark datasets demonstrate that OptFeature performs well in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Additional studies support the feasibility of our method.
3D holographic communication has the potential to revolutionize the way people interact with each other in virtual spaces, offering immersive and realistic experiences. However, demands for high data rates, extremely low latency, and high computations to enable this technology pose a significant challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a novel job scheduling algorithm that leverages Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) servers in order to minimize the total latency in 3D holographic communication. One of the motivations for this work is to prevent the uncanny valley effect, which can occur when the latency hinders the seamless and real-time rendering of holographic content, leading to a less convincing and less engaging user experience. Our proposed algorithm dynamically allocates computation tasks to MEC servers, considering the network conditions, computational capabilities of the servers, and the requirements of the 3D holographic communication application. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the performance of our algorithm in terms of latency reduction, and the results demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms other baseline methods. Furthermore, we present a practical scenario involving Augmented Reality (AR), which not only illustrates the applicability of our algorithm but also highlights the importance of minimizing latency in achieving high-quality holographic views. By efficiently distributing the computation workload among MEC servers and reducing the overall latency, our proposed algorithm enhances the user experience in 3D holographic communications and paves the way for the widespread adoption of this technology in various applications, such as telemedicine, remote collaboration, and entertainment.
Volumetric video, which offers immersive viewing experiences, is gaining increasing prominence. With its six degrees of freedom, it provides viewers with greater immersion and interactivity compared to traditional videos. Despite their potential, volumetric video services poses significant challenges. This survey conducts a comprehensive review of the existing literature on volumetric video. We firstly provide a general framework of volumetric video services, followed by a discussion on prerequisites for volumetric video, encompassing representations, open datasets, and quality assessment metrics. Then we delve into the current methodologies for each stage of the volumetric video service pipeline, detailing capturing, compression, transmission, rendering, and display techniques. Lastly, we explore various applications enabled by this pioneering technology and we present an array of research challenges and opportunities in the domain of volumetric video services. This survey aspires to provide a holistic understanding of this burgeoning field and shed light on potential future research trajectories, aiming to bring the vision of volumetric video to fruition.
Although Deep neural networks (DNNs) have shown a strong capacity to solve large-scale problems in many areas, such DNNs are hard to be deployed in real-world systems due to their voluminous parameters. To tackle this issue, Teacher-Student architectures were proposed, where simple student networks with a few parameters can achieve comparable performance to deep teacher networks with many parameters. Recently, Teacher-Student architectures have been effectively and widely embraced on various knowledge distillation (KD) objectives, including knowledge compression, knowledge expansion, knowledge adaptation, and knowledge enhancement. With the help of Teacher-Student architectures, current studies are able to achieve multiple distillation objectives through lightweight and generalized student networks. Different from existing KD surveys that primarily focus on knowledge compression, this survey first explores Teacher-Student architectures across multiple distillation objectives. This survey presents an introduction to various knowledge representations and their corresponding optimization objectives. Additionally, we provide a systematic overview of Teacher-Student architectures with representative learning algorithms and effective distillation schemes. This survey also summarizes recent applications of Teacher-Student architectures across multiple purposes, including classification, recognition, generation, ranking, and regression. Lastly, potential research directions in KD are investigated, focusing on architecture design, knowledge quality, and theoretical studies of regression-based learning, respectively. Through this comprehensive survey, industry practitioners and the academic community can gain valuable insights and guidelines for effectively designing, learning, and applying Teacher-Student architectures on various distillation objectives.
Global urbanization has underscored the significance of urban microclimates for human comfort, health, and building/urban energy efficiency. They profoundly influence building design and urban planning as major environmental impacts. Understanding local microclimates is essential for cities to prepare for climate change and effectively implement resilience measures. However, analyzing urban microclimates requires considering a complex array of outdoor parameters within computational domains at the city scale over a longer period than indoors. As a result, numerical methods like Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) become computationally expensive when evaluating the impact of urban microclimates. The rise of deep learning techniques has opened new opportunities for accelerating the modeling of complex non-linear interactions and system dynamics. Recently, the Fourier Neural Operator (FNO) has been shown to be very promising in accelerating solving the Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and modeling fluid dynamic systems. In this work, we apply the FNO network for real-time three-dimensional (3D) urban wind field simulation. The training and testing data are generated from CFD simulation of the urban area, based on the semi-Lagrangian approach and fractional stepping method to simulate urban microclimate features for modeling large-scale urban problems. Numerical experiments show that the FNO model can accurately reconstruct the instantaneous spatial velocity field. We further evaluate the trained FNO model on unseen data with different wind directions, and the results show that the FNO model can generalize well on different wind directions. More importantly, the FNO approach can make predictions within milliseconds on the graphics processing unit, making real-time simulation of 3D dynamic urban microclimate possible.
Autonomous individuals establish a structural complex system through pairwise connections and interactions. Notably, the evolution reflects the dynamic nature of each complex system since it recodes a series of temporal changes from the past, the present into the future. Different systems follow distinct evolutionary trajectories, which can serve as distinguishing traits for system classification. However, modeling a complex system's evolution is challenging for the graph model because the graph is typically a snapshot of the static status of a system, and thereby hard to manifest the long-term evolutionary traits of a system entirely. To address this challenge, we suggest utilizing a heat-driven method to generate temporal graph augmentation. This approach incorporates the physics-based heat kernel and DropNode technique to transform each static graph into a sequence of temporal ones. This approach effectively describes the evolutional behaviours of the system, including the retention or disappearance of elements at each time point based on the distributed heat on each node. Additionally, we propose a dynamic time-wrapping distance GDTW to quantitatively measure the distance between pairwise evolutionary systems through optimal matching. The resulting approach, called the Evolution Kernel method, has been successfully applied to classification problems in real-world structural graph datasets. The results yield significant improvements in supervised classification accuracy over a series of baseline methods.