Dense SLAM based on monocular cameras does indeed have immense application value in the field of AR/VR, especially when it is performed on a mobile device. In this paper, we propose a novel method that integrates a light-weight depth completion network into a sparse SLAM system using a multi-basis depth representation, so that dense mapping can be performed online even on a mobile phone. Specifically, we present a specifically optimized multi-basis depth completion network, called BBC-Net, tailored to the characteristics of traditional sparse SLAM systems. BBC-Net can predict multiple balanced bases and a confidence map from a monocular image with sparse points generated by off-the-shelf keypoint-based SLAM systems. The final depth is a linear combination of predicted depth bases that can be optimized by tuning the corresponding weights. To seamlessly incorporate the weights into traditional SLAM optimization and ensure efficiency and robustness, we design a set of depth weight factors, which makes our network a versatile plug-in module, facilitating easy integration into various existing sparse SLAM systems and significantly enhancing global depth consistency through bundle adjustment. To verify the portability of our method, we integrate BBC-Net into two representative SLAM systems. The experimental results on various datasets show that the proposed method achieves better performance in monocular dense mapping than the state-of-the-art methods. We provide an online demo running on a mobile phone, which verifies the efficiency and mapping quality of the proposed method in real-world scenarios.
In recent years, discriminative self-supervised methods have made significant strides in advancing various visual tasks. The central idea of learning a data encoder that is robust to data distortions/augmentations is straightforward yet highly effective. Although many studies have demonstrated the empirical success of various learning methods, the resulting learned representations can exhibit instability and hinder downstream performance. In this study, we analyze discriminative self-supervised methods from a causal perspective to explain these unstable behaviors and propose solutions to overcome them. Our approach draws inspiration from prior works that empirically demonstrate the ability of discriminative self-supervised methods to demix ground truth causal sources to some extent. Unlike previous work on causality-empowered representation learning, we do not apply our solutions during the training process but rather during the inference process to improve time efficiency. Through experiments on both controlled image datasets and realistic image datasets, we show that our proposed solutions, which involve tempering a linear transformation with controlled synthetic data, are effective in addressing these issues.
Out-of-Distribution (OOD) detection is critical for the reliable operation of open-world intelligent systems. Despite the emergence of an increasing number of OOD detection methods, the evaluation inconsistencies present challenges for tracking the progress in this field. OpenOOD v1 initiated the unification of the OOD detection evaluation but faced limitations in scalability and usability. In response, this paper presents OpenOOD v1.5, a significant improvement from its predecessor that ensures accurate, standardized, and user-friendly evaluation of OOD detection methodologies. Notably, OpenOOD v1.5 extends its evaluation capabilities to large-scale datasets such as ImageNet, investigates full-spectrum OOD detection which is important yet underexplored, and introduces new features including an online leaderboard and an easy-to-use evaluator. This work also contributes in-depth analysis and insights derived from comprehensive experimental results, thereby enriching the knowledge pool of OOD detection methodologies. With these enhancements, OpenOOD v1.5 aims to drive advancements and offer a more robust and comprehensive evaluation benchmark for OOD detection research.
Current self-supervised learning (SSL) methods (e.g., SimCLR, DINO, VICReg, MOCOv3) target primarily on representations at instance level and do not generalize well to dense prediction tasks, such as object detection and segmentation. Towards aligning SSL with dense predictions, this paper demonstrates for the first time the underlying mean-shift clustering process of Vision Transformers (ViT), which aligns well with natural image semantics (e.g., a world of objects and stuffs). By employing transformer for joint embedding and clustering, we propose a two-level feature clustering SSL method, coined Feature-Level Self-supervised Learning (FLSL). We present the formal definition of the FLSL problem and construct the objectives from the mean-shift and k-means perspectives. We show that FLSL promotes remarkable semantic cluster representations and learns an embedding scheme amenable to intra-view and inter-view feature clustering. Experiments show that FLSL yields significant improvements in dense prediction tasks, achieving 44.9 (+2.8)% AP and 46.5% AP in object detection, as well as 40.8 (+2.3)% AP and 42.1% AP in instance segmentation on MS-COCO, using Mask R-CNN with ViT-S/16 and ViT-S/8 as backbone, respectively. FLSL consistently outperforms existing SSL methods across additional benchmarks, including UAV object detection on UAVDT, and video instance segmentation on DAVIS 2017. We conclude by presenting visualization and various ablation studies to better 20 understand the success of FLSL.
Building up reliable Out-of-Distribution (OOD) detectors is challenging, often requiring the use of OOD data during training. In this work, we develop a data-driven approach which is distinct and complementary to existing works: Instead of using external OOD data, we fully exploit the internal in-distribution (ID) training set by utilizing generative models to produce additional synthetic ID images. The classifier is then trained using a novel objective that computes weighted loss on real and synthetic ID samples together. Our training framework, which is termed SIO, serves as a "plug-and-play" technique that is designed to be compatible with existing and future OOD detection algorithms, including the ones that leverage available OOD training data. Our experiments on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet variants demonstrate that SIO consistently improves the performance of nearly all state-of-the-art (SOTA) OOD detection algorithms. For instance, on the challenging CIFAR-10 v.s. CIFAR-100 detection problem, SIO improves the average OOD detection AUROC of 18 existing methods from 86.25\% to 89.04\% and achieves a new SOTA of 92.94\% according to the OpenOOD benchmark. Code is available at https://github.com/zjysteven/SIO.
Robust segmentation of infant brain MRI across multiple ages, modalities, and sites remains challenging due to the intrinsic heterogeneity caused by different MRI scanners, vendors, or acquisition sequences, as well as varying stages of neurodevelopment. To address this challenge, previous studies have explored domain adaptation (DA) algorithms from various perspectives, including feature alignment, entropy minimization, contrast synthesis (style transfer), and pseudo-labeling. This paper introduces a novel framework called MAPSeg (Masked Autoencoding and Pseudo-labelling Segmentation) to address the challenges of cross-age, cross-modality, and cross-site segmentation of subcortical regions in infant brain MRI. Utilizing 3D masked autoencoding as well as masked pseudo-labeling, the model is able to jointly learn from labeled source domain data and unlabeled target domain data. We evaluated our framework on expert-annotated datasets acquired from different ages and sites. MAPSeg consistently outperformed other methods, including previous state-of-the-art supervised baselines, domain generalization, and domain adaptation frameworks in segmenting subcortical regions regardless of age, modality, or acquisition site. The code and pretrained encoder will be publicly available at https://github.com/XuzheZ/MAPSeg
Disentangled learning representations have promising utility in many applications, but they currently suffer from serious reliability issues. We present Gaussian Channel Autoencoder (GCAE), a method which achieves reliable disentanglement via flexible density estimation of the latent space. GCAE avoids the curse of dimensionality of density estimation by disentangling subsets of its latent space with the Dual Total Correlation (DTC) metric, thereby representing its high-dimensional latent joint distribution as a collection of many low-dimensional conditional distributions. In our experiments, GCAE achieves highly competitive and reliable disentanglement scores compared with state-of-the-art baselines.
Multi-task learning (MTL) aims at solving multiple related tasks simultaneously and has experienced rapid growth in recent years. However, MTL models often suffer from performance degeneration with negative transfer due to learning several tasks simultaneously. Some related work attributed the source of the problem is the conflicting gradients. In this case, it is needed to select useful gradient updates for all tasks carefully. To this end, we propose a novel optimization approach for MTL, named GDOD, which manipulates gradients of each task using an orthogonal basis decomposed from the span of all task gradients. GDOD decomposes gradients into task-shared and task-conflict components explicitly and adopts a general update rule for avoiding interference across all task gradients. This allows guiding the update directions depending on the task-shared components. Moreover, we prove the convergence of GDOD theoretically under both convex and non-convex assumptions. Experiment results on several multi-task datasets not only demonstrate the significant improvement of GDOD performed to existing MTL models but also prove that our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art optimization methods in terms of AUC and Logloss metrics.