Text style is highly abstract, as it encompasses various aspects of a speaker's characteristics, habits, logical thinking, and the content they express. However, previous text-style transfer tasks have primarily focused on data-driven approaches, lacking in-depth analysis and research from the perspectives of linguistics and cognitive science. In this paper, we introduce a novel task called Text Speech-Style Transfer (TSST). The main objective is to further explore topics related to human cognition, such as personality and emotion, based on the capabilities of existing LLMs. Considering the objective of our task and the distinctive characteristics of oral speech in real-life scenarios, we trained multi-dimension (i.e. filler words, vividness, interactivity, emotionality) evaluation models for the TSST and validated their correlation with human assessments. We thoroughly analyze the performance of several large language models (LLMs) and identify areas where further improvement is needed. Moreover, driven by our evaluation models, we have released a new corpus that improves the capabilities of LLMs in generating text with speech-style characteristics. In summary, we present the TSST task, a new benchmark for style transfer and emphasizing human-oriented evaluation, exploring and advancing the performance of current LLMs.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable performance across various natural language tasks, marking significant strides towards general artificial intelligence. While general artificial intelligence is leveraged by developing increasingly large-scale models, there could be another branch to develop lightweight custom models that better serve certain domains, taking into account the high cost of training and deploying LLMs and the scarcity of resources. In this paper, we present MindLLM, a novel series of bilingual lightweight large language models, trained from scratch, alleviating such burdens by offering models with 1.3 billion and 3 billion parameters. A thorough account of experiences accrued during large model development is given, covering every step of the process, including data construction, model architecture, evaluation, and applications. Such insights are hopefully valuable for fellow academics and developers. MindLLM consistently matches or surpasses the performance of other open-source larger models on some public benchmarks. We also introduce an innovative instruction tuning framework tailored for smaller models to enhance their capabilities efficiently. Moreover, we explore the application of MindLLM in specific vertical domains such as law and finance, underscoring the agility and adaptability of our lightweight models.
Agile and adaptive maneuvers such as fall recovery, high-speed turning, and sprinting in the wild are challenging for legged systems. We propose a Curricular Hindsight Reinforcement Learning (CHRL) that learns an end-to-end tracking controller that achieves powerful agility and adaptation for the legged robot. The two key components are (I) a novel automatic curriculum strategy on task difficulty and (ii) a Hindsight Experience Replay strategy adapted to legged locomotion tasks. We demonstrated successful agile and adaptive locomotion on a real quadruped robot that performed fall recovery autonomously, coherent trotting, sustained outdoor speeds up to 3.45 m/s, and tuning speeds up to 3.2 rad/s. This system produces adaptive behaviours responding to changing situations and unexpected disturbances on natural terrains like grass and dirt.
The growing adoption of declarative software specification languages, coupled with their inherent difficulty in debugging, has underscored the need for effective and automated repair techniques applicable to such languages. Researchers have recently explored various methods to automatically repair declarative software specifications, such as template-based repair, feedback-driven iterative repair, and bounded exhaustive approaches. The latest developments in large language models provide new opportunities for the automatic repair of declarative specifications. In this study, we assess the effectiveness of utilizing OpenAI's ChatGPT to repair software specifications written in the Alloy declarative language. Unlike imperative languages, specifications in Alloy are not executed but rather translated into logical formulas and evaluated using backend constraint solvers to identify specification instances and counterexamples to assertions. Our evaluation focuses on ChatGPT's ability to improve the correctness and completeness of Alloy declarative specifications through automatic repairs. We analyze the results produced by ChatGPT and compare them with those of leading automatic Alloy repair methods. Our study revealed that while ChatGPT falls short in comparison to existing techniques, it was able to successfully repair bugs that no other technique could address. Our analysis also identified errors in ChatGPT's generated repairs, including improper operator usage, type errors, higher-order logic misuse, and relational arity mismatches. Additionally, we observed instances of hallucinations in ChatGPT-generated repairs and inconsistency in its results. Our study provides valuable insights for software practitioners, researchers, and tool builders considering ChatGPT for declarative specification repairs.
We study reward poisoning attacks on Combinatorial Multi-armed Bandits (CMAB). We first provide a sufficient and necessary condition for the attackability of CMAB, which depends on the intrinsic properties of the corresponding CMAB instance such as the reward distributions of super arms and outcome distributions of base arms. Additionally, we devise an attack algorithm for attackable CMAB instances. Contrary to prior understanding of multi-armed bandits, our work reveals a surprising fact that the attackability of a specific CMAB instance also depends on whether the bandit instance is known or unknown to the adversary. This finding indicates that adversarial attacks on CMAB are difficult in practice and a general attack strategy for any CMAB instance does not exist since the environment is mostly unknown to the adversary. We validate our theoretical findings via extensive experiments on real-world CMAB applications including probabilistic maximum covering problem, online minimum spanning tree, cascading bandits for online ranking, and online shortest path.
Reconstructing natural speech from neural activity is vital for enabling direct communication via brain-computer interfaces. Previous efforts have explored the conversion of neural recordings into speech using complex deep neural network (DNN) models trained on extensive neural recording data, which is resource-intensive under regular clinical constraints. However, achieving satisfactory performance in reconstructing speech from limited-scale neural recordings has been challenging, mainly due to the complexity of speech representations and the neural data constraints. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel transfer learning framework for neural-driven speech reconstruction, called Neural2Speech, which consists of two distinct training phases. First, a speech autoencoder is pre-trained on readily available speech corpora to decode speech waveforms from the encoded speech representations. Second, a lightweight adaptor is trained on the small-scale neural recordings to align the neural activity and the speech representation for decoding. Remarkably, our proposed Neural2Speech demonstrates the feasibility of neural-driven speech reconstruction even with only 20 minutes of intracranial data, which significantly outperforms existing baseline methods in terms of speech fidelity and intelligibility.
Multi-view clustering (MVC) is a popular technique for improving clustering performance using various data sources. However, existing methods primarily focus on acquiring consistent information while often neglecting the issue of redundancy across multiple views. This study presents a new approach called Sufficient Multi-View Clustering (SUMVC) that examines the multi-view clustering framework from an information-theoretic standpoint. Our proposed method consists of two parts. Firstly, we develop a simple and reliable multi-view clustering method SCMVC (simple consistent multi-view clustering) that employs variational analysis to generate consistent information. Secondly, we propose a sufficient representation lower bound to enhance consistent information and minimise unnecessary information among views. The proposed SUMVC method offers a promising solution to the problem of multi-view clustering and provides a new perspective for analyzing multi-view data. To verify the effectiveness of our model, we conducted a theoretical analysis based on the Bayes Error Rate, and experiments on multiple multi-view datasets demonstrate the superior performance of SUMVC.
Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) has significantly boosted the performance of various vision-language tasks by scaling up the dataset with image-text pairs collected from the web. However, the presence of intrinsic noise and unmatched image-text pairs in web data can potentially affect the performance of representation learning. To address this issue, we first utilize the OFA model to generate synthetic captions that focus on the image content. The generated captions contain complementary information that is beneficial for pre-training. Then, we propose an Adaptive Language-Image Pre-training (ALIP), a bi-path model that integrates supervision from both raw text and synthetic caption. As the core components of ALIP, the Language Consistency Gate (LCG) and Description Consistency Gate (DCG) dynamically adjust the weights of samples and image-text/caption pairs during the training process. Meanwhile, the adaptive contrastive loss can effectively reduce the impact of noise data and enhances the efficiency of pre-training data. We validate ALIP with experiments on different scales of models and pre-training datasets. Experiments results show that ALIP achieves state-of-the-art performance on multiple downstream tasks including zero-shot image-text retrieval and linear probe. To facilitate future research, the code and pre-trained models are released at https://github.com/deepglint/ALIP.
Predicting stock prices presents a challenging research problem due to the inherent volatility and non-linear nature of the stock market. In recent years, knowledge-enhanced stock price prediction methods have shown groundbreaking results by utilizing external knowledge to understand the stock market. Despite the importance of these methods, there is a scarcity of scholarly works that systematically synthesize previous studies from the perspective of external knowledge types. Specifically, the external knowledge can be modeled in different data structures, which we group into non-graph-based formats and graph-based formats: 1) non-graph-based knowledge captures contextual information and multimedia descriptions specifically associated with an individual stock; 2) graph-based knowledge captures interconnected and interdependent information in the stock market. This survey paper aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive description of methods for acquiring external knowledge from various unstructured data sources and then incorporating it into stock price prediction models. We also explore fusion methods for combining external knowledge with historical price features. Moreover, this paper includes a compilation of relevant datasets and delves into potential future research directions in this domain.