Few-shot medical image semantic segmentation is of paramount importance in the domain of medical image analysis. However, existing methodologies grapple with the challenge of data scarcity during the training phase, leading to over-fitting. To mitigate this issue, we introduce a novel Unsupervised Dense Few-shot Medical Image Segmentation Model Training Pipeline (DenseMP) that capitalizes on unsupervised dense pre-training. DenseMP is composed of two distinct stages: (1) segmentation-aware dense contrastive pre-training, and (2) few-shot-aware superpixel guided dense pre-training. These stages collaboratively yield a pre-trained initial model specifically designed for few-shot medical image segmentation, which can subsequently be fine-tuned on the target dataset. Our proposed pipeline significantly enhances the performance of the widely recognized few-shot segmentation model, PA-Net, achieving state-of-the-art results on the Abd-CT and Abd-MRI datasets. Code will be released after acceptance.
While deep learning succeeds in a wide range of tasks, it highly depends on the massive collection of annotated data which is expensive and time-consuming. To lower the cost of data annotation, active learning has been proposed to interactively query an oracle to annotate a small proportion of informative samples in an unlabeled dataset. Inspired by the fact that the samples with higher loss are usually more informative to the model than the samples with lower loss, in this paper we present a novel deep active learning approach that queries the oracle for data annotation when the unlabeled sample is believed to incorporate high loss. The core of our approach is a measurement Temporal Output Discrepancy (TOD) that estimates the sample loss by evaluating the discrepancy of outputs given by models at different optimization steps. Our theoretical investigation shows that TOD lower-bounds the accumulated sample loss thus it can be used to select informative unlabeled samples. On basis of TOD, we further develop an effective unlabeled data sampling strategy as well as an unsupervised learning criterion for active learning. Due to the simplicity of TOD, our methods are efficient, flexible, and task-agnostic. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves superior performances than the state-of-the-art active learning methods on image classification and semantic segmentation tasks. In addition, we show that TOD can be utilized to select the best model of potentially the highest testing accuracy from a pool of candidate models.
Uncertainty estimation for unlabeled data is crucial to active learning. With a deep neural network employed as the backbone model, the data selection process is highly challenging due to the potential over-confidence of the model inference. Existing methods resort to special learning fashions (e.g. adversarial) or auxiliary models to address this challenge. This tends to result in complex and inefficient pipelines, which would render the methods impractical. In this work, we propose a novel algorithm that leverages noise stability to estimate data uncertainty in a Single-Training Multi-Inference fashion. The key idea is to measure the output derivation from the original observation when the model parameters are randomly perturbed by noise. We provide theoretical analyses by leveraging the small Gaussian noise theory and demonstrate that our method favors a subset with large and diverse gradients. Despite its simplicity, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art active learning baselines in various tasks, including computer vision, natural language processing, and structural data analysis.
Central to active learning (AL) is what data should be selected for annotation. Existing works attempt to select highly uncertain or informative data for annotation. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how selected data impacts the test performance of the task model used in AL. In this work, we explore such an impact by theoretically proving that selecting unlabeled data of higher gradient norm leads to a lower upper bound of test loss, resulting in a better test performance. However, due to the lack of label information, directly computing gradient norm for unlabeled data is infeasible. To address this challenge, we propose two schemes, namely expected-gradnorm and entropy-gradnorm. The former computes the gradient norm by constructing an expected empirical loss while the latter constructs an unsupervised loss with entropy. Furthermore, we integrate the two schemes in a universal AL framework. We evaluate our method on classical image classification and semantic segmentation tasks. To demonstrate its competency in domain applications and its robustness to noise, we also validate our method on a cellular imaging analysis task, namely cryo-Electron Tomography subtomogram classification. Results demonstrate that our method achieves superior performance against the state-of-the-art. Our source code is available at https://github.com/xulabs/aitom
While deep learning succeeds in a wide range of tasks, it highly depends on the massive collection of annotated data which is expensive and time-consuming. To lower the cost of data annotation, active learning has been proposed to interactively query an oracle to annotate a small proportion of informative samples in an unlabeled dataset. Inspired by the fact that the samples with higher loss are usually more informative to the model than the samples with lower loss, in this paper we present a novel deep active learning approach that queries the oracle for data annotation when the unlabeled sample is believed to incorporate high loss. The core of our approach is a measurement Temporal Output Discrepancy (TOD) that estimates the sample loss by evaluating the discrepancy of outputs given by models at different optimization steps. Our theoretical investigation shows that TOD lower-bounds the accumulated sample loss thus it can be used to select informative unlabeled samples. On basis of TOD, we further develop an effective unlabeled data sampling strategy as well as an unsupervised learning criterion that enhances model performance by incorporating the unlabeled data. Due to the simplicity of TOD, our active learning approach is efficient, flexible, and task-agnostic. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves superior performances than the state-of-the-art active learning methods on image classification and semantic segmentation tasks.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a retinal microvascular condition that emerges in diabetic patients. DR will continue to be a leading cause of blindness worldwide, with a predicted 191.0 million globally diagnosed patients in 2030. Microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates, and cotton wool spots are common signs of DR. However, they can be small and hard for human eyes to detect. Early detection of DR is crucial for effective clinical treatment. Existing methods to classify images require much time for feature extraction and selection, and are limited in their performance. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), as an emerging deep learning (DL) method, have proven their potential in image classification tasks. In this paper, comprehensive experimental studies of implementing state-of-the-art CNNs for the detection and classification of DR are conducted in order to determine the top performing classifiers for the task. Five CNN classifiers, namely Inception-V3, VGG19, VGG16, ResNet50, and InceptionResNetV2, are evaluated through experiments. They categorize medical images into five different classes based on DR severity. Data augmentation and transfer learning techniques are applied since annotated medical images are limited and imbalanced. Experimental results indicate that the ResNet50 classifier has top performance for binary classification and that the InceptionResNetV2 classifier has top performance for multi-class DR classification.
Arbitrary image style transfer is a challenging task which aims to stylize a content image conditioned on an arbitrary style image. In this task the content-style feature transformation is a critical component for a proper fusion of features. Existing feature transformation algorithms often suffer from unstable learning, loss of content and style details, and non-natural stroke patterns. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes a parameter-free algorithm, Style Projection, for fast yet effective content-style transformation. To leverage the proposed Style Projection~component, this paper further presents a real-time feed-forward model for arbitrary style transfer, including a regularization for matching the content semantics between inputs and outputs. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method in terms of qualitative analysis, quantitative evaluation, and user study.
Deep transfer learning has acquired significant research interest. It makes use of pre-trained models that are learned from a source domain, and utilizes these models for the tasks in a target domain. Model-based deep transfer learning is arguably the most frequently used method. However, very little work has been devoted to enhancing deep transfer learning by focusing on the influence of data. In this work, we propose an instance-based approach to improve deep transfer learning in target domain. Specifically, we choose a pre-trained model which is learned from a source domain, and utilize this model to estimate the influence of each training sample in a target domain. Then we optimize training data of the target domain by removing the training samples that will lower the performance of the pre-trained model. We then fine-tune the pre-trained model with the optimized training data in the target domain, or build a new model which can be initialized partially based on the pre-trained model, and fine-tune it with the optimized training data in the target domain. Using this approach, transfer learning can help deep learning models to learn more useful features. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on further boosting deep learning models for typical high-level computer vision tasks, such as image classification.
Deep learning models learn to fit training data while they are highly expected to generalize well to testing data. Most works aim at finding such models by creatively designing architectures and fine-tuning parameters. To adapt to particular tasks, hand-crafted information such as image prior has also been incorporated into end-to-end learning. However, very little progress has been made on investigating how an individual training sample will influence the generalization ability of a model. In other words, to achieve high generalization accuracy, do we really need all the samples in a training dataset? In this paper, we demonstrate that deep learning models such as convolutional neural networks may not favor all training samples, and generalization accuracy can be further improved by dropping those unfavorable samples. Specifically, the influence of removing a training sample is quantifiable, and we propose a Two-Round Training approach, aiming to achieve higher generalization accuracy. We locate unfavorable samples after the first round of training, and then retrain the model from scratch with the reduced training dataset in the second round. Since our approach is essentially different from fine-tuning or further training, the computational cost should not be a concern. Our extensive experimental results indicate that, with identical settings, the proposed approach can boost performance of the well-known networks on both high-level computer vision problems such as image classification, and low-level vision problems such as image denoising.
Variations of deep neural networks such as convolutional neural network (CNN) have been successfully applied to image denoising. The goal is to automatically learn a mapping from a noisy image to a clean image given training data consisting of pairs of noisy and clean images. Most existing CNN models for image denoising have many layers. In such cases, the models involve a large amount of parameters and are computationally expensive to train. In this paper, we develop a dilated residual CNN for Gaussian image denoising. Compared with the recently proposed residual denoiser, our method can achieve comparable performance with less computational cost. Specifically, we enlarge receptive field by adopting dilated convolution in residual network, and the dilation factor is set to a certain value. We utilize appropriate zero padding to make the dimension of the output the same as the input. It has been proven that the expansion of receptive field can boost the CNN performance in image classification, and we further demonstrate that it can also lead to competitive performance for denoising problem. Moreover, we present a formula to calculate receptive field size when dilated convolution is incorporated. Thus, the change of receptive field can be interpreted mathematically. To validate the efficacy of our approach, we conduct extensive experiments for both gray and color image denoising with specific or randomized noise levels. Both of the quantitative measurements and the visual results of denoising are promising comparing with state-of-the-art baselines.