The goal of the challenge is to develop a test-time adaptation (TTA) method, which could adapt the model to gradually changing domains in video sequences for semantic segmentation task. It is based on a synthetic driving video dataset - SHIFT. The source model is trained on images taken during daytime in clear weather. Domain changes at test-time are mainly caused by varying weather conditions and times of day. The TTA methods are evaluated in each image sequence (video) separately, meaning the model is reset to the source model state before the next sequence. Images come one by one and a prediction has to be made at the arrival of each frame. Each sequence is composed of 401 images and starts with the source domain, then gradually drifts to a different one (changing weather or time of day) until the middle of the sequence. In the second half of the sequence, the domain gradually shifts back to the source one. Ground truth data is available only for the validation split of the SHIFT dataset, in which there are only six sequences that start and end with the source domain. We conduct an analysis specifically on those sequences. Ground truth data for test split, on which the developed TTA methods are evaluated for leader board ranking, are not publicly available. The proposed solution secured a 3rd place in a challenge and received an innovation award. Contrary to the solutions that scored better, we did not use any external pretrained models or specialized data augmentations, to keep the solutions as general as possible. We have focused on analyzing the distributional shift and developing a method that could adapt to changing data dynamics and generalize across different scenarios.
Protein structure-based property prediction has emerged as a promising approach for various biological tasks, such as protein function prediction and sub-cellular location estimation. The existing methods highly rely on experimental protein structure data and fail in scenarios where these data are unavailable. Predicted protein structures from AI tools (e.g., AlphaFold2) were utilized as alternatives. However, we observed that current practices, which simply employ accurately predicted structures during inference, suffer from notable degradation in prediction accuracy. While similar phenomena have been extensively studied in general fields (e.g., Computer Vision) as model robustness, their impact on protein property prediction remains unexplored. In this paper, we first investigate the reason behind the performance decrease when utilizing predicted structures, attributing it to the structure embedding bias from the perspective of structure representation learning. To study this problem, we identify a Protein 3D Graph Structure Learning Problem for Robust Protein Property Prediction (PGSL-RP3), collect benchmark datasets, and present a protein Structure embedding Alignment Optimization framework (SAO) to mitigate the problem of structure embedding bias between the predicted and experimental protein structures. Extensive experiments have shown that our framework is model-agnostic and effective in improving the property prediction of both predicted structures and experimental structures. The benchmark datasets and codes will be released to benefit the community.
Humans often acquire new skills through observation and imitation. For robotic agents, learning from the plethora of unlabeled video demonstration data available on the Internet necessitates imitating the expert without access to its action, presenting a challenge known as Imitation Learning from Observations (ILfO). A common approach to tackle ILfO problems is to convert them into inverse reinforcement learning problems, utilizing a proxy reward computed from the agent's and the expert's observations. Nonetheless, we identify that tasks characterized by a progress dependency property pose significant challenges for such approaches; in these tasks, the agent needs to initially learn the expert's preceding behaviors before mastering the subsequent ones. Our investigation reveals that the main cause is that the reward signals assigned to later steps hinder the learning of initial behaviors. To address this challenge, we present a novel ILfO framework that enables the agent to master earlier behaviors before advancing to later ones. We introduce an Automatic Discount Scheduling (ADS) mechanism that adaptively alters the discount factor in reinforcement learning during the training phase, prioritizing earlier rewards initially and gradually engaging later rewards only when the earlier behaviors have been mastered. Our experiments, conducted on nine Meta-World tasks, demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods across all tasks, including those that are unsolvable by them.
Exemplar-free class-incremental learning (CIL) poses several challenges since it prohibits the rehearsal of data from previous tasks and thus suffers from catastrophic forgetting. Recent approaches to incrementally learning the classifier by freezing the feature extractor after the first task have gained much attention. In this paper, we explore prototypical networks for CIL, which generate new class prototypes using the frozen feature extractor and classify the features based on the Euclidean distance to the prototypes. In an analysis of the feature distributions of classes, we show that classification based on Euclidean metrics is successful for jointly trained features. However, when learning from non-stationary data, we observe that the Euclidean metric is suboptimal and that feature distributions are heterogeneous. To address this challenge, we revisit the anisotropic Mahalanobis distance for CIL. In addition, we empirically show that modeling the feature covariance relations is better than previous attempts at sampling features from normal distributions and training a linear classifier. Unlike existing methods, our approach generalizes to both many- and few-shot CIL settings, as well as to domain-incremental settings. Interestingly, without updating the backbone network, our method obtains state-of-the-art results on several standard continual learning benchmarks. Code is available at https://github.com/dipamgoswami/FeCAM.
Medical image segmentation is critical for diagnosing and treating spinal disorders. However, the presence of high noise, ambiguity, and uncertainty makes this task highly challenging. Factors such as unclear anatomical boundaries, inter-class similarities, and irrational annotations contribute to this challenge. Achieving both accurate and diverse segmentation templates is essential to support radiologists in clinical practice. In recent years, denoising diffusion probabilistic modeling (DDPM) has emerged as a prominent research topic in computer vision. It has demonstrated effectiveness in various vision tasks, including image deblurring, super-resolution, anomaly detection, and even semantic representation generation at the pixel level. Despite the robustness of existing diffusion models in visual generation tasks, they still struggle with discrete masks and their various effects. To address the need for accurate and diverse spine medical image segmentation templates, we propose an end-to-end framework called VerseDiff-UNet, which leverages the denoising diffusion probabilistic model (DDPM). Our approach integrates the diffusion model into a standard U-shaped architecture. At each step, we combine the noise-added image with the labeled mask to guide the diffusion direction accurately towards the target region. Furthermore, to capture specific anatomical a priori information in medical images, we incorporate a shape a priori module. This module efficiently extracts structural semantic information from the input spine images. We evaluate our method on a single dataset of spine images acquired through X-ray imaging. Our results demonstrate that VerseDiff-UNet significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy while preserving the natural features and variations of anatomy.
Continual learning algorithms which keep the parameters of new tasks close to that of previous tasks, are popular in preventing catastrophic forgetting in sequential task learning settings. However, 1) the performance for the new continual learner will be degraded without distinguishing the contributions of previously learned tasks; 2) the computational cost will be greatly increased with the number of tasks, since most existing algorithms need to regularize all previous tasks when learning new tasks. To address the above challenges, we propose a self-paced Weight Consolidation (spWC) framework to attain robust continual learning via evaluating the discriminative contributions of previous tasks. To be specific, we develop a self-paced regularization to reflect the priorities of past tasks via measuring difficulty based on key performance indicator (i.e., accuracy). When encountering a new task, all previous tasks are sorted from "difficult" to "easy" based on the priorities. Then the parameters of the new continual learner will be learned via selectively maintaining the knowledge amongst more difficult past tasks, which could well overcome catastrophic forgetting with less computational cost. We adopt an alternative convex search to iteratively update the model parameters and priority weights in the bi-convex formulation. The proposed spWC framework is plug-and-play, which is applicable to most continual learning algorithms (e.g., EWC, MAS and RCIL) in different directions (e.g., classification and segmentation). Experimental results on several public benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed framework can effectively improve performance when compared with other popular continual learning algorithms.
Self-supervised learning has recently emerged as a strong alternative in document analysis. These approaches are now capable of learning high-quality image representations and overcoming the limitations of supervised methods, which require a large amount of labeled data. However, these methods are unable to capture new knowledge in an incremental fashion, where data is presented to the model sequentially, which is closer to the realistic scenario. In this paper, we explore the potential of continual self-supervised learning to alleviate the catastrophic forgetting problem in handwritten text recognition, as an example of sequence recognition. Our method consists in adding intermediate layers called adapters for each task, and efficiently distilling knowledge from the previous model while learning the current task. Our proposed framework is efficient in both computation and memory complexity. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we evaluate our method by transferring the learned model to diverse text recognition downstream tasks, including Latin and non-Latin scripts. As far as we know, this is the first application of continual self-supervised learning for handwritten text recognition. We attain state-of-the-art performance on English, Italian and Russian scripts, whilst adding only a few parameters per task. The code and trained models will be publicly available.
Existing lifting networks for regressing 3D human poses from 2D single-view poses are typically constructed with linear layers based on graph-structured representation learning. In sharp contrast to them, this paper presents Grid Convolution (GridConv), mimicking the wisdom of regular convolution operations in image space. GridConv is based on a novel Semantic Grid Transformation (SGT) which leverages a binary assignment matrix to map the irregular graph-structured human pose onto a regular weave-like grid pose representation joint by joint, enabling layer-wise feature learning with GridConv operations. We provide two ways to implement SGT, including handcrafted and learnable designs. Surprisingly, both designs turn out to achieve promising results and the learnable one is better, demonstrating the great potential of this new lifting representation learning formulation. To improve the ability of GridConv to encode contextual cues, we introduce an attention module over the convolutional kernel, making grid convolution operations input-dependent, spatial-aware and grid-specific. We show that our fully convolutional grid lifting network outperforms state-of-the-art methods with noticeable margins under (1) conventional evaluation on Human3.6M and (2) cross-evaluation on MPI-INF-3DHP. Code is available at https://github.com/OSVAI/GridConv
Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a vital classification tool in statistics and machine learning. This paper investigates the varying coefficient LDA model for dynamic data, with Bayes' discriminant direction being a function of some exposure variable to address the heterogeneity. By deriving a new discriminant direction function parallel with Bayes' direction, we propose a least-square estimation procedure based on the B-spline approximation. For high-dimensional regime, the corresponding data-driven discriminant rule is more computationally efficient than the existed dynamic linear programming rule. We also establish the corresponding theoretical results, including estimation error bound and the uniform excess misclassification rate. Numerical experiments on synthetic data and real data both corroborate the superiority of our proposed classification method.