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Jiyi Chen, Pengyu Li, Yutong Wang, Pei-Cheng Ku, Qing Qu

This work proposes a deep learning (DL)-based framework, namely Sim2Real, for spectral signal reconstruction in reconstructive spectroscopy, focusing on efficient data sampling and fast inference time. The work focuses on the challenge of reconstructing real-world spectral signals under the extreme setting where only device-informed simulated data are available for training. Such device-informed simulated data are much easier to collect than real-world data but exhibit large distribution shifts from their real-world counterparts. To leverage such simulated data effectively, a hierarchical data augmentation strategy is introduced to mitigate the adverse effects of this domain shift, and a corresponding neural network for the spectral signal reconstruction with our augmented data is designed. Experiments using a real dataset measured from our spectrometer device demonstrate that Sim2Real achieves significant speed-up during the inference while attaining on-par performance with the state-of-the-art optimization-based methods.

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Yutong Wang, Rishi Sonthalia, Wei Hu

We study the generalization capability of nearly-interpolating linear regressors: $\boldsymbol{\beta}$'s whose training error $\tau$ is positive but small, i.e., below the noise floor. Under a random matrix theoretic assumption on the data distribution and an eigendecay assumption on the data covariance matrix $\boldsymbol{\Sigma}$, we demonstrate that any near-interpolator exhibits rapid norm growth: for $\tau$ fixed, $\boldsymbol{\beta}$ has squared $\ell_2$-norm $\mathbb{E}[\|{\boldsymbol{\beta}}\|_{2}^{2}] = \Omega(n^{\alpha})$ where $n$ is the number of samples and $\alpha >1$ is the exponent of the eigendecay, i.e., $\lambda_i(\boldsymbol{\Sigma}) \sim i^{-\alpha}$. This implies that existing data-independent norm-based bounds are necessarily loose. On the other hand, in the same regime we precisely characterize the asymptotic trade-off between interpolation and generalization. Our characterization reveals that larger norm scaling exponents $\alpha$ correspond to worse trade-offs between interpolation and generalization. We verify empirically that a similar phenomenon holds for nearly-interpolating shallow neural networks.

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Yutong Wang, Chaoyang Jiang, Xieyuanli Chen

In recent years, object-oriented simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has attracted increasing attention due to its ability to provide high-level semantic information while maintaining computational efficiency. Some researchers have attempted to enhance localization accuracy by integrating the modeled object residuals into bundle adjustment. However, few have demonstrated better results than feature-based visual SLAM systems, as the generic coarse object models, such as cuboids or ellipsoids, are less accurate than feature points. In this paper, we propose a Visual Object Odometry and Mapping framework VOOM using high-level objects and low-level points as the hierarchical landmarks in a coarse-to-fine manner instead of directly using object residuals in bundle adjustment. Firstly, we introduce an improved observation model and a novel data association method for dual quadrics, employed to represent physical objects. It facilitates the creation of a 3D map that closely reflects reality. Next, we use object information to enhance the data association of feature points and consequently update the map. In the visual object odometry backend, the updated map is employed to further optimize the camera pose and the objects. Meanwhile, local bundle adjustment is performed utilizing the objects and points-based covisibility graphs in our visual object mapping process. Experiments show that VOOM outperforms both object-oriented SLAM and feature points SLAM systems such as ORB-SLAM2 in terms of localization. The implementation of our method is available at https://github.com/yutongwangBIT/VOOM.git.

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Jianqiang Ren, Chao He, Lin Liu, Jiahao Chen, Yutong Wang, Yafei Song, Jianfang Li, Tangli Xue, Siqi Hu, Tao Chen, Kunkun Zheng, Jianjing Xiang, Liefeng Bo

There is a growing demand for customized and expressive 3D characters with the emergence of AI agents and Metaverse, but creating 3D characters using traditional computer graphics tools is a complex and time-consuming task. To address these challenges, we propose a user-friendly framework named Make-A-Character (Mach) to create lifelike 3D avatars from text descriptions. The framework leverages the power of large language and vision models for textual intention understanding and intermediate image generation, followed by a series of human-oriented visual perception and 3D generation modules. Our system offers an intuitive approach for users to craft controllable, realistic, fully-realized 3D characters that meet their expectations within 2 minutes, while also enabling easy integration with existing CG pipeline for dynamic expressiveness. For more information, please visit the project page at https://human3daigc.github.io/MACH/.

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Yutong Wang, Clayton Scott

The notion of margin loss has been central to the development and analysis of algorithms for binary classification. To date, however, there remains no consensus as to the analogue of the margin loss for multiclass classification. In this work, we show that a broad range of multiclass loss functions, including many popular ones, can be expressed in the relative margin form, a generalization of the margin form of binary losses. The relative margin form is broadly useful for understanding and analyzing multiclass losses as shown by our prior work (Wang and Scott, 2020, 2021). To further demonstrate the utility of this way of expressing multiclass losses, we use it to extend the seminal result of Bartlett et al. (2006) on classification-calibration of binary margin losses to multiclass. We then analyze the class of Fenchel-Young losses, and expand the set of these losses that are known to be classification-calibrated.

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Pengyu Li, Yutong Wang, Xiao Li, Qing Qu

We study deep neural networks for the multi-label classification (MLab) task through the lens of neural collapse (NC). Previous works have been restricted to the multi-class classification setting and discovered a prevalent NC phenomenon comprising of the following properties for the last-layer features: (i) the variability of features within every class collapses to zero, (ii) the set of feature means form an equi-angular tight frame (ETF), and (iii) the last layer classifiers collapse to the feature mean upon some scaling. We generalize the study to multi-label learning, and prove for the first time that a generalized NC phenomenon holds with the "pick-all-label" formulation. Under the natural analog of the unconstrained feature model (UFM), we establish that the only global classifier of the pick-all-label cross entropy loss display the same ETF geometry which further collapse to multiplicity-1 feature class means. Besides, we discover a combinatorial property in generalized NC which is unique for multi-label learning that we call "tag-wise average" property, where the feature class-means of samples with multiple labels are scaled average of the feature class-means of single label tags. Theoretically, we establish global optimality result for the pick-all-label cross-entropy risk for the UFM. Additionally, We also provide empirical evidence to support our investigation into training deep neural networks on multi-label datasets, resulting in improved training efficiency.

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Chengyang He, Tianze Yang, Tanishq Duhan, Yutong Wang, Guillaume Sartoretti

The multi-agent pathfinding (MAPF) problem seeks collision-free paths for a team of agents from their current positions to their pre-set goals in a known environment, and is an essential problem found at the core of many logistics, transportation, and general robotics applications. Existing learning-based MAPF approaches typically only let each agent make decisions based on a limited field-of-view (FOV) around its position, as a natural means to fix the input dimensions of its policy network. However, this often makes policies short-sighted, since agents lack the ability to perceive and plan for obstacles/agents beyond their FOV. To address this challenge, we propose ALPHA, a new framework combining the use of ground truth proximal (local) information and fuzzy distal (global) information to let agents sequence local decisions based on the full current state of the system, and avoid such myopicity. We further allow agents to make short-term predictions about each others' paths, as a means to reason about each others' path intentions, thereby enhancing the level of cooperation among agents at the whole system level. Our neural structure relies on a Graph Transformer architecture to allow agents to selectively combine these different sources of information and reason about their inter-dependencies at different spatial scales. Our simulation experiments demonstrate that ALPHA outperforms both globally-guided MAPF solvers and communication-learning based ones, showcasing its potential towards scalability in realistic deployments.

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Ren-Jian Wang, Ke Xue, Yutong Wang, Peng Yang, Haobo Fu, Qiang Fu, Chao Qian

Diversity plays a significant role in many problems, such as ensemble learning, reinforcement learning, and combinatorial optimization. How to define the diversity measure is a longstanding problem. Many methods rely on expert experience to define a proper behavior space and then obtain the diversity measure, which is, however, challenging in many scenarios. In this paper, we propose the problem of learning a behavior space from human feedback and present a general method called Diversity from Human Feedback (DivHF) to solve it. DivHF learns a behavior descriptor consistent with human preference by querying human feedback. The learned behavior descriptor can be combined with any distance measure to define a diversity measure. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DivHF by integrating it with the Quality-Diversity optimization algorithm MAP-Elites and conducting experiments on the QDax suite. The results show that DivHF learns a behavior space that aligns better with human requirements compared to direct data-driven approaches and leads to more diverse solutions under human preference. Our contributions include formulating the problem, proposing the DivHF method, and demonstrating its effectiveness through experiments.

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Zhiwei Xu, Yutong Wang, Spencer Frei, Gal Vardi, Wei Hu

Neural networks trained by gradient descent (GD) have exhibited a number of surprising generalization behaviors. First, they can achieve a perfect fit to noisy training data and still generalize near-optimally, showing that overfitting can sometimes be benign. Second, they can undergo a period of classical, harmful overfitting -- achieving a perfect fit to training data with near-random performance on test data -- before transitioning ("grokking") to near-optimal generalization later in training. In this work, we show that both of these phenomena provably occur in two-layer ReLU networks trained by GD on XOR cluster data where a constant fraction of the training labels are flipped. In this setting, we show that after the first step of GD, the network achieves 100% training accuracy, perfectly fitting the noisy labels in the training data, but achieves near-random test accuracy. At a later training step, the network achieves near-optimal test accuracy while still fitting the random labels in the training data, exhibiting a "grokking" phenomenon. This provides the first theoretical result of benign overfitting in neural network classification when the data distribution is not linearly separable. Our proofs rely on analyzing the feature learning process under GD, which reveals that the network implements a non-generalizable linear classifier after one step and gradually learns generalizable features in later steps.

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