ChatGPT has demonstrated impressive performance in various downstream tasks. However, in the Chinese Spelling Correction (CSC) task, we observe a discrepancy: while ChatGPT performs well under human evaluation, it scores poorly according to traditional metrics. We believe this inconsistency arises because the traditional metrics are not well-suited for evaluating generative models. Their overly strict length and phonics constraints may lead to underestimating ChatGPT's correction capabilities. To better evaluate generative models in the CSC task, this paper proposes a new evaluation metric: Eval-GCSC. By incorporating word-level and semantic similarity judgments, it relaxes the stringent length and phonics constraints. Experimental results show that Eval-GCSC closely aligns with human evaluations. Under this metric, ChatGPT's performance is comparable to traditional token-level classification models (TCM), demonstrating its potential as a CSC tool. The source code and scripts can be accessed at https://github.com/ktlKTL/Eval-GCSC.
LLMs and AI chatbots have improved people's efficiency in various fields. However, the necessary knowledge for answering the question may be beyond the models' knowledge boundaries. To mitigate this issue, many researchers try to introduce external knowledge, such as knowledge graphs and Internet contents, into LLMs for up-to-date information. However, the external information from the Internet may include counterfactual information that will confuse the model and lead to an incorrect response. Thus there is a pressing need for LLMs to possess the ability to distinguish reliable information from external knowledge. Therefore, to evaluate the ability of LLMs to discern the reliability of external knowledge, we create a benchmark from existing knowledge bases. Our benchmark consists of two tasks, Question Answering and Text Generation, and for each task, we provide models with a context containing counterfactual information. Evaluation results show that existing LLMs are susceptible to interference from unreliable external knowledge with counterfactual information, and simple intervention methods make limited contributions to the alleviation of this issue.
Despite Multi-modal Large Language Models (MM-LLMs) have made exciting strides recently, they are still struggling to efficiently model the interactions among multi-modal inputs and the generation in non-textual modalities. In this work, we propose TEAL (Tokenize and Embed ALl)}, an approach to treat the input from any modality as a token sequence and learn a joint embedding space for all modalities. Specifically, for the input from any modality, TEAL first discretizes it into a token sequence with the off-the-shelf tokenizer and embeds the token sequence into a joint embedding space with a learnable embedding matrix. MM-LLMs just need to predict the multi-modal tokens autoregressively as the textual LLMs do. Finally, the corresponding de-tokenizer is applied to generate the output in each modality based on the predicted token sequence. With the joint embedding space, TEAL enables the frozen LLMs to perform both understanding and generation tasks involving non-textual modalities, such as image and audio. Thus, the textual LLM can just work as an interface and maintain its high performance in textual understanding and generation. Experiments show that TEAL achieves substantial improvements in multi-modal understanding, and implements a simple scheme for multi-modal generations.
Contemporary translation engines built upon the encoder-decoder framework have reached a high level of development, while the emergence of Large Language Models (LLMs) has disrupted their position by offering the potential for achieving superior translation quality. Therefore, it is crucial to understand in which scenarios LLMs outperform traditional NMT systems and how to leverage their strengths. In this paper, we first conduct a comprehensive analysis to assess the strengths and limitations of various commercial NMT systems and MT-oriented LLMs. Our findings indicate that neither NMT nor MT-oriented LLMs alone can effectively address all the translation issues, but MT-oriented LLMs can serve as a promising complement to the NMT systems. Building upon these insights, we explore hybrid methods and propose Cooperative Decoding (CoDec), which treats NMT systems as a pretranslation model and MT-oriented LLMs as a supplemental solution to handle complex scenarios beyond the capability of NMT alone. The results on the WMT22 test sets and a newly collected test set WebCrawl demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of CoDec, highlighting its potential as a robust solution for combining NMT systems with MT-oriented LLMs in machine translation.
Retrieving relevant plots from the book for a query is a critical task, which can improve the reading experience and efficiency of readers. Readers usually only give an abstract and vague description as the query based on their own understanding, summaries, or speculations of the plot, which requires the retrieval model to have a strong ability to estimate the abstract semantic associations between the query and candidate plots. However, existing information retrieval (IR) datasets cannot reflect this ability well. In this paper, we propose Plot Retrieval, a labeled dataset to train and evaluate the performance of IR models on the novel task Plot Retrieval. Text pairs in Plot Retrieval have less word overlap and more abstract semantic association, which can reflect the ability of the IR models to estimate the abstract semantic association, rather than just traditional lexical or semantic matching. Extensive experiments across various lexical retrieval, sparse retrieval, dense retrieval, and cross-encoder methods compared with human studies on Plot Retrieval show current IR models still struggle in capturing abstract semantic association between texts. Plot Retrieval can be the benchmark for further research on the semantic association modeling ability of IR models.
Active learning aims to construct an effective training set by iteratively curating the most informative unlabeled data for annotation, which is practical in low-resource tasks. Most active learning techniques in classification rely on the model's uncertainty or disagreement to choose unlabeled data. However, previous work indicates that existing models are poor at quantifying predictive uncertainty, which can lead to over-confidence in superficial patterns and a lack of exploration. Inspired by the cognitive processes in which humans deduce and predict through causal information, we propose a novel Explainable Active Learning framework (XAL) for low-resource text classification, which aims to encourage classifiers to justify their inferences and delve into unlabeled data for which they cannot provide reasonable explanations. Specifically, besides using a pre-trained bi-directional encoder for classification, we employ a pre-trained uni-directional decoder to generate and score the explanation. A ranking loss is proposed to enhance the decoder's capability in scoring explanations. During the selection of unlabeled data, we combine the predictive uncertainty of the encoder and the explanation score of the decoder to acquire informative data for annotation. As XAL is a general framework for text classification, we test our methods on six different classification tasks. Extensive experiments show that XAL achieves substantial improvement on all six tasks over previous AL methods. Ablation studies demonstrate the effectiveness of each component, and human evaluation shows that the model trained in XAL performs surprisingly well in explaining its prediction.
Argument structure extraction (ASE) aims to identify the discourse structure of arguments within documents. Previous research has demonstrated that contextual information is crucial for developing an effective ASE model. However, we observe that merely concatenating sentences in a contextual window does not fully utilize contextual information and can sometimes lead to excessive attention on less informative sentences. To tackle this challenge, we propose an Efficient Context-aware ASE model (ECASE) that fully exploits contextual information by enhancing modeling capacity and augmenting training data. Specifically, we introduce a sequence-attention module and distance-weighted similarity loss to aggregate contextual information and argumentative information. Additionally, we augment the training data by randomly masking discourse markers and sentences, which reduces the model's reliance on specific words or less informative sentences. Our experiments on five datasets from various domains demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, ablation studies confirm the effectiveness of each module in our model.
Multi-modal keyphrase generation aims to produce a set of keyphrases that represent the core points of the input text-image pair. In this regard, dominant methods mainly focus on multi-modal fusion for keyphrase generation. Nevertheless, there are still two main drawbacks: 1) only a limited number of sources, such as image captions, can be utilized to provide auxiliary information. However, they may not be sufficient for the subsequent keyphrase generation. 2) the input text and image are often not perfectly matched, and thus the image may introduce noise into the model. To address these limitations, in this paper, we propose a novel multi-modal keyphrase generation model, which not only enriches the model input with external knowledge, but also effectively filters image noise. First, we introduce external visual entities of the image as the supplementary input to the model, which benefits the cross-modal semantic alignment for keyphrase generation. Second, we simultaneously calculate an image-text matching score and image region-text correlation scores to perform multi-granularity image noise filtering. Particularly, we introduce the correlation scores between image regions and ground-truth keyphrases to refine the calculation of the previously-mentioned correlation scores. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our model, we conduct several groups of experiments on the benchmark dataset. Experimental results and in-depth analyses show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance. Our code is available on https://github.com/DeepLearnXMU/MM-MKP.
Multi-choice questions (MCQs) serve as a common yet important task format in the research of large language models (LLMs). Our work shows that LLMs exhibit an inherent "selection bias" in MCQs, which refers to LLMs' preferences to select options located at specific positions (like "Option C"). This bias is prevalent across various LLMs, making their performance vulnerable to option position changes in MCQs. We identify that one primary cause resulting in selection bias is option numbering, i.e., the ID symbols A/B/C/D associated with the options. To mitigate selection bias, we propose a new method called PriDe. PriDe first decomposes the observed model prediction distribution into an intrinsic prediction over option contents and a prior distribution over option IDs. It then estimates the prior by permutating option contents on a small number of test samples, which is used to debias the subsequent test samples. We demonstrate that, as a label-free, inference-time method, PriDe achieves a more effective and computation-efficient debiasing than strong baselines. We further show that the priors estimated by PriDe generalize well across different domains, highlighting its practical potential in broader scenarios.